Java.util Interface Spliterator in Java8
Prerequisite : Iterators in java
- It is included in JDK 8 for support of efficient parallel traversal(parallel programming) in addition to sequential traversal.
- However, you can use Spliterator even if you won’t be using parallel execution. One reason you might want to do so is because it combines the hasNext and next operations into one method.
For collections, Spliterator object can be created by calling spliterator() method present in Collection interface.
// Here "c" is any Collection object. splitr is of // type Spliterator interface and refers to "c" Spliterator splitr = c.spliterator();
Spliterator interface defines 8 methods:
- int characteristics() : Returns a set of characteristics of this Spliterator and its elements. The result is from ORDERED(0x00000010), DISTINCT(0x00000001), SORTED(0x00000004), SIZED(0x00000040), NONNULL(0x00000100), IMMUTABLE(0x00000400), CONCURRENT(0x00001000), SUBSIZED(0x00004000).
Syntax : int characteristics() Parameters : NA Returns : Returns the characteristics of the invoking spliterator, encoded into an integer.
- long estimateSize( ) : It returns an estimate the number of elements left to iterate or returns Long.MAX_VALUE if infinite, unknown, or too expensive to compute.
Syntax : long estimateSize( ) Parameters : NA Returns : Estimates the number of elements left to iterate and returns the result. Returns Long.MAX_VALUE if the count cannot be obtained for any reason.
- default long getExactSizeIfKnown( ) : Convenience method that returns estimateSize() if this Spliterator is SIZED, else -1.
Syntax : default long getExactSizeIfKnown( ) Parameters : NA Returns : If the invoking spliterator is SIZED, returns the number of elements left to iterate. Returns –1 otherwise.
- default Comparator<? super T> getComparator( ) : If this Spliterator’s source is SORTED by a Comparator, returns that Comparator. If the source is SORTED in natural order, returns null. Otherwise, if the source is not SORTED, throws IllegalStateException.
Syntax : default Comparator<? super T> getComparator( ) Parameters : NA Returns : Returns the comparator used by the invoking spliterator or null if natural ordering is used. Throws: IllegalStateException - If the sequence is unordered, IllegalStateException is thrown.
- default boolean hasCharacteristics(int val) : Returns true if this Spliterator’s characteristics() contain all of the given characteristics.
Syntax : default boolean hasCharacteristics(int val) Parameters : characteristics - the characteristics to check for Returns : Returns true if the invoking spliterator has the characteristics passed in val. Returns false otherwise.
- boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super T> action) : If a remaining element exists, performs the given action on it, returning true; else returns false. If this Spliterator is ORDERED the action is performed on the next element in encounter order. Exceptions thrown by the action are relayed to the caller.
Syntax : boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super T> action) Parameters : action - The action Returns : Returns true if there is a next element. Returns false if no elements remain. Throws : NullPointerException - if the specified action is null
- default void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super T>action) : Performs the given action for each remaining element, sequentially in the current thread, until all elements have been processed or the action throws an exception. If this Spliterator is ORDERED, actions are performed in encounter order. Exceptions thrown by the action are relayed to the caller.
Syntax : default void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super T>action) Parameters : action - The action Returns : NA Throws : NullPointerException - if the specified action is null
- Spliterator<T> trySplit( ) : If possible, splits the invoking spliterator, returning a reference to a new spliterator for the partition. Otherwise, returns null. Thus, if successful, the original spliterator iterates over one portion of the sequence and the returned spliterator iterates over the other portion.
Syntax : Spliterator<T> trySplit( ) Parameters : NA Returns : a Spliterator covering some portion of the elements, or null if this spliterator cannot be split
The below example demonstrate methods of Spliterator.
estimate size : 5 exact size : 5 true Content of arraylist : 1 2 -3 -4 5 Output from splitr2: 1 2 Output from splitr1: -3 -4 5
Java program for tryadvance method
Have a look at tryAdvance() method.It performs an action on the next element and then advances the iterator. It is shown here:
boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super T> action)
Here, action specifies the action that is executed on the next element in the iteration and Consumer is a functional interface that applies an action to an object. It is a generic functional interface declared in java.util.function. It has only one abstract method, accept( ), which is
void accept(T objRef)
here T is type of object reference.
For implementing our action, we must implement accept method.To implement accept method, here we use lambda expression .This will be more clear from below example.
How to use Spliterator with Collections: Using Spliterator for basic iteration tasks is quite easy, simply call tryAdvance( ) until it returns false.
Contents of arraylist: 1 2 -3 -4 5 Absolute values of contents of arraylist: 1 2 3 4 5
Notice how tryAdvance( ) consolidates the purposes of hasNext( ) and next( ) provided by Iterator into a single method in above example. This improves the efficiency of the iteration process.
In some cases, you might want to perform some action on each element collectively, rather than one at a time. To handle this type of situation, Spliterator provides the forEachRemaining( ) method, it is generally used in cases involving streams. This method applies action to each unprocessed element and then returns.
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