Catalan numbers are a sequence of natural numbers that occurs in many interesting counting problems like following.
1) Count the number of expressions containing n pairs of parentheses which are correctly matched. For n = 3, possible expressions are ((())), ()(()), ()()(), (())(), (()()).
The first few Catalan numbers for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, … are 1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, 132, 429, 1430, 4862, …
Catalan numbers satisfy the following recursive formula.
Following is the implementation of above recursive formula.
1 1 2 5 14 42 132 429 1430 4862
Dynamic Programming Solution
We can observe that the above recursive implementation does a lot of repeated work (we can the same by drawing recursion tree). Since there are overlapping subproblems, we can use dynamic programming for this. Following is a Dynamic programming based implementation in C++.
Please refer complete article on Program for nth Catalan Number for more details!