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Geometric Shapes

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Geometric shapes are the figures used in mathematics to represent the forms of real-world things. Shapes are the forms of things in geometry that have boundaries, angles, and surfaces.

There are basically two types of geometric figures:

  • 2D Shapes(Two-dimensional)
  • 3D Shapes(Three-dimensional)

Shapes are also divided into two types on the basis of their regularity or uniformity.

  • Regular Shapes– Symmetric shapes such as square, circles, etc.
  • Irregular Shapes– Asymmetric shapes or freeform shapes.

Types and Properties of Geometric Shapes

2D Shapes

NameFigureDefinition
Square
square

 

A square is a 2D figure consisting of 4 equal sides and equal angles, where each angle is equal to 90°. 
Rectangle
Rectangle

 

A rectangle is a 2D figure with 4 sides where opposite sides are equal and each angle is equal to 90°.
Triangle
Triangle

 

A triangle is a 2D figure enclosed with 3 sides and consists of 3 edges and 3 vertices and has the sum of its 3 angles equal to 180.
Circle
circle

 

A circle is a closed 2D figure round in shape with no sides and corners.
Oval
oval

 

An oval is also a closed 2D figure somewhat similar to a circle with elongated to some extent. It does not have 
Parallelogram
Parallelogram

 

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides and equal opposite angles.
Trapezium
Trapezium

 

 A Trapezium is a quadrilateral in which one pair of opposite sides is parallel.
Rhombus
Rhombus

 

Rhombus is a type of quadrilateral.It is a special parallelogram that has 4 equal sides and its diagonals bisect at 90.
Kite
kite

 

Kite is a quadrilateral that has two pairs of equal adjacent sides.

Types of Polygons

ShapesFigures
Triangle
Triangle

 

Quadrilateral
square

 

Pentagon
Pentagon

 

Hexagon
Hexagon

 

Septagon
septagon

 

Octagon
Octagon

 

Nonagon
Nonagon

 

Decagon
Decagon

 

3D Shapes

Names of  3D geometric shapesFigureDefinition
Cube
Cube

 

A cube is a three-dimensional shape that has 6 faces, 8 vertices, and 12 edges. The faces of the cube are square.

Example: A Rubik’s cube

Cuboid
Cuboid

 

A cuboid is a three-dimensional solid having 6 rectangular faces, 8 vertices, and 12 edges. 

Example: Matchbox

Cone
cone

 

A cone is a solid which has a circular base and a pointed edge at the top called the apex or vertex. 

Example: An ice cream cone

Cylinder
Cylinder

 

A cylinder is a 3d solid shape that has two parallel circular bases connected by a curved surface. It has no vertex. 

Example: Gas cylinder

Sphere
Sphere

 

A sphere is a round shape in a 3d plane, looking like a ball. Its radius extends in three dimensions (x-axis, y-axis, z-axis).

Example: Ball

List and Properties of Geometric Shapes

The list of geometric shapes along with their edges, vertices, and faces is given below.

real life examples of polygons

 

NameTypeEdgesVerticesFaces
Square2D44
Rectangle2D44
Triangle2D33
Circle2DCurved0
Pentagon2D55
Hexagon2D66
Cube3D1286
Cuboid3D1286
Cone3D112
Cylinder3D203
Sphere3DCurved01

Open and Closed Figures

Closed Shapes

Basic geometric shapes like squares, rectangles, and triangles are a few 2D shapes. These figures are referred such as polygons. Any flat form or plane on a piece of paper is a polygon. They have finite closed boundaries made up of line segments known as sides of the polygon. Geometric figures such as polygons are known as closed figures. The boundary of a closed figure could be either made up of line segments or curves. Therefore, any geometric object that begins and ends at the same location and forms a border using line segments or curves is considered to be a closed figure.

Closed figures

 

Open Shapes

Open shapes aren’t complete. The beginning point and finishing point must be met in order to draw a closed figure. Using line segments or curves to represent open figures is another option, but at least the lines will be broken up. The origin and destination of an open figure are distinct.

Open figures

 

FAQs on Geometric Shapes

Q1: What are different geometric shapes in Maths?

Answer:

There are various geometric shapes such as circle, square, rectangle, kite, triangle etc. are the basic 2d shapes while Cube,Cuboid,Cone,Cylinder,Sphere are basic 3d shapes.

Q2: Name different kinds of polygons.

Answer:

The different polygons are:
Triangle
Quadrilaterals – square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezium, kite
Pentagon
Hexagon
Heptagon
Octagon
Nonagon
Decagon

Q3: Give a few real-life examples of 3D shapes.

Answer:

Cube – Sugar cube, Rubik’s cube
Cuboid- A wooden rectangular box, matchbox
Cone- Icecream cone, Pyramid
Sphere- Football, Basketball
Cylinder- Gas cylinder, Cylindrical jar

Q4: What are basic solid shapes?

Answer:

The basic solid shapes are Cube, Cuboid, Cone, Sphere, Hemisphere and Cylinder.



Last Updated : 17 May, 2023
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