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Geographical Location of India

Last Updated : 03 Jan, 2023
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Geography is the investigation of spots and the connections among individuals and their surroundings. Geographers investigate both the actual properties of Earth’s surface and the human social orders spread across it. They additionally look at how human culture cooperates with the indigenous habitat and the way that areas and puts can affect individuals. Geography looks to comprehend where things are found, why they are there, and how they create and change after some time.

India is one of the most socially rich, and commonly powerful countries in the world. With an extraordinary geological area and substance, the nation teaches a majority rules government, equity, organization, and respectability as its establishing standards.

Geography of India

Location, latitude, and longitude

  • India lies in the Northeastern hemisphere of the Earth.
  • India is 8°4′ N & 37°6′ N in latitude.
  • India is 68°7′ E & 97°25′ E in longitude.
  • Andaman and Nicobar islands lie to the southeast of India in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Lakshadweep islands lie to the southwest of India in the Arabian sea.
  • The 23°30′ N latitude which is called as Tropic of Cancer passes through eight states and nearly cuts India into two halves.


  • India is the 7th largest country in the world.
  • It has an area of about 3.28 million square kilometers and is nearly 2.4% of the world’s area.
  • The land boundary of India is nearly 15,200 km out of which coastal lines including Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands is 7517km.
  • India extends from Kashmir to Kanyakumari in about 3214km and from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh in about 2933km.

Physical Divisions of India

The topography of a region is the result of the construction, process, and transformative phase. The place that is known for India displays extraordinary actual varieties. Geographically, the Peninsular Plateau is one of the antiquated expanses of land and most stable land blocks on the world’s surface. The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the latest landforms. The Himalayan mountains address extremely energetic geography with high pinnacles, profound valleys, and quick streams. The Northern Plains are shaped by alluvial stores and the Peninsular Plateau is made out of molten and transformative rocks with tenderly rising slopes and wide valleys.

The  physical divisions of Indian Geography are,

  • The Great Himalayas
  • The great Indo-Gangetic Plain
  • The Peninsular Plateau
  • The Coastal Ghats
  • The Thar Desert
  • The Islands

The Great Himalayas

The mighty  Himalayas in the north with their grand mountain ranges and magnificent pinnacles extending from East to West is safeguarding the country from outer hostility like a monstrous sentinel. The incredible mountain wall is around 2500 km. long and its width fluctuates from 240 km. to 320 km. Mount Everest is the elevated top known to be the most elevated on the planet with a level of 29,142 feet.

Himalayas are divided into four major ranges.

  • The Tibetan Himalayas
  • Himadri
  • Himachal
  • Shiwaliks

The Himalayas is the wellspring of numerous valuable and blessed streams like the Indus, the Ganges, the Yamuna, the Brahmaputra, and their feeders. The snow of the mountain and weighty precipitation are capable to guarantee a stream of adequate water all through the year through these streams. The waterways flood fields, making land fruitful that at last add to the extravagance in farming and bountiful food supply.

Great Indo-Gangetic Plains

The Great Indo-Gangetic fields embrace the valleys of the Indus and the feeders, the sandy deserts of Sind and Rajputana as well as the prolific area watered by the Ganges, the Yamuna, and the Brahmaputra. It has forever been the center of the Indian Continent. The plain framed by the store of rich soil washed down during innumerable hundreds of years from the immense Himalayan reaches on the north and the slopes and uplands of the Deccan of the South.

The Indo-Gangetic plains are further classified into three major plains.

  • The Ganga Plains
  • The Brahmaputra Plains.
  • The Punjab Plains.

The immense natural assets of this plain are fertility and water supply from rivers. The extravagance and ripeness of land here additionally represent the variety of large metropolitan habitats and the focus of exchange and the capitals of antiquated Kingdoms. This large number of variables has made this plain the draw of an endless series of intruders.

Peninsular Plateau

The peninsular plateau lies in the south of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On its north, the Vindhya and the Satpura ranges isolate it from the Indo-Gangetic plain and slant down to the Cape Comorin. In the east, it begins from the Bay of Bengal and spreads straight up to the Arabian Sea in the West. Waterways like the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, and the Tungabhadra have cleared the land and made the level profoundly avaricious.

The peninsular plateau is further divided into three groups.

  • The central Highlands
  • The Deccan Plateau
  • The North Eastern Plateau

Coastal Ghats

The Coastal Ghats extensively frame the coast belts of the East and West of the Deccan Plateau. On the eastern side of the level the slope range running from the north toward the South practically lined up with the shore is known as the Eastern Ghats. On the West, the mountain range running lined up with the Arabian ocean is known as the Western Ghats. The waterfront fields have rich soil and are evergreen with rice plants and coconut trees. It is exceptionally useful and densely populated.

The Coastal Ghats are further divided into 2 groups.

  • The Eastern Coastal Plains.
  • The Western Coastal Plains.

Thar Desert

The Thar Desert, otherwise called the Great Indian Desert, is an enormous dry district in the northwestern piece of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of 200,000 square kilometers and structures a characteristic limit among India and Pakistan. It is the world’s twentieth biggest desert and the world’s ninth biggest hot subtropical desert. The inhabitants of the Thar desert store the water with extraordinary consideration for their creatures and farming purposes. Life in Thar is extremely challenging, one who lives in the locale, ought to deal with numerous issues in day-to-day existence. Particularly, the Shepherd typically traverses many states with their crowds and returns to their area before the stormy season.


The two major islands of India are,

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • The Lakshadweep Islands.

Sample Questions

Question 1: Mention a few unique Geographical locations of India.


  • The Himalayas
  • Mawsynram
  • The Aravalli Ranges
  • The Satpura Range
  • The Majuli Island
  • Wular Lake
  • Ram Setu

Question 2: List the states through Tropic of Cancer passes.


  • Rajasthan
  • Gujarat
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Jharkhand
  • Chhattisgarh
  • West Bengal
  • Mizoram
  • Tripura

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