Generating random numbers in Java

2

Java provides three ways to generate random numbers using some built-in methods and classes as listed below:

  • java.util.Random class
  • Math.random method : Can Generate Random Numbers of double type.
  • ThreadLocalRandom class

1) java.util.Random

  • For using this class to generate random numbers, we have to first create an instance of this class and then invoke methods such as nextInt(), nextDouble(), nextLong() etc using that instance.
  • We can generate random numbers of types integers, float, double, long, booleans using this class.
  • We can pass arguments to the methods for placing an upper bound on the range of the numbers to be generated. For example, nextInt(6) will generate numbers in the range 0 to 5 both inclusive.
    • // A Java program to demonstrate random number generation
      // using java.util.Random;
      import java.util.Random;
      
      public class generateRandom{
      
          public static void main(String args[])
          {
              // create instance of Random class
              Random rand = new Random();
      
              // Generate random integers in range 0 to 999
              int rand_int1 = rand.nextInt(1000);
              int rand_int2 = rand.nextInt(1000);
      
              // Print random integers
              System.out.println("Random Integers: "+rand_int1);
              System.out.println("Random Integers: "+rand_int2);
      
              // Generate Random doubles
              double rand_dub1 = rand.nextDouble();
              double rand_dub2 = rand.nextDouble();
      
              // Print random doubles
              System.out.println("Random Doubles: "+rand_dub1);
              System.out.println("Random Doubles: "+rand_dub2);
          }
      }
      

      Output:

      Random Integers: 547
      Random Integers: 126
      Random Doubles: 0.8369779739988428
      Random Doubles: 0.5497554388209912
      

       

      2) Math.random()

      The class Math contains various methods for performing various numeric operations such as, calculating exponentiation, logarithms etc. One of these methods is random(), this method returns a double value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0. The returned values are chosen pseudorandomly. This method can only generate random numbers of type Doubles. Below program explains how to use this method:

      // Java program to demonstrate working of 
      // Math.random() to generate random numbers
      import java.util.*;
      
      public class generateRandom
      {
          public static void main(String args[])
          {
              // Generating random doubles
              System.out.println("Random doubles: " + Math.random());
              System.out.println("Random doubles: " + Math.random());
          }
      }
      

      Output:

      Random doubles: 0.13077348615666562
      Random doubles: 0.09247016928442775
      

       

      3) java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom class

      This class is introduced in java 1.7 to generate random numbers of type integers, doubles, booleans etc. Below program explains how to use this class to generate random numbers:

      // Java program to demonstrate working of ThreadLocalRandom
      // to generate random numbers.
      import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
      
      public class generateRandom
      {
          public static void main(String args[])
          {
              // Generate random integers in range 0 to 999
              int rand_int1 = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt();
              int rand_int2 = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextInt();
      
              // Print random integers
              System.out.println("Random Integers: " + rand_int1);
              System.out.println("Random Integers: " + rand_int2);
      
              // Generate Random doubles
              double rand_dub1 = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextDouble();
              double rand_dub2 = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextDouble();
      
              // Print random doubles
              System.out.println("Random Doubles: " + rand_dub1);
              System.out.println("Random Doubles: " + rand_dub2);
      
              // Generate random booleans
              boolean rand_bool1 = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextBoolean();
              boolean rand_bool2 = ThreadLocalRandom.current().nextBoolean();
      
              // Print random Booleans
              System.out.println("Random Booleans: " + rand_bool1);
              System.out.println("Random Booleans: " + rand_bool2);
          }
      }
      

      Output:

      Random Integers: 536953314
      Random Integers: 25905330
      Random Doubles: 0.7504989954390163
      Random Doubles: 0.7658597196204409
      Random Booleans: false
      Random Booleans: true
      

      References:
      https://docs.oracle.com

      This article is contributed by Harsh Agarwal. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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