Given a large integer **N**, the task is to find all the possible remainders when **N** is divided by all the positive integers from **1** to **N + 1**.

**Examples:**

Input:N = 5

Output:0 1 2 5

5 % 1 = 0

5 % 2 = 1

5 % 3 = 2

5 % 4 = 1

5 % 5 = 0

5 % 6 = 5

Input:N = 11

Output:0 1 2 3 5 11

**Naive approach:** Run a loop from **1** to **N + 1** and return all the unique remainders found when dividing **N** by any integer from the range. But this approach is not efficient for larger values of **N**.

**Efficient approach:** It can be observed that one part of the answer will always contain numbers between **0** to **ceil(sqrt(n))**. It can be proven by running the naive algorithm on smaller values of **N** and checking the remainders obtained or by solving the equation **ceil(N / k) = x** or **x ≤ (N / k) < x + 1** where **x** is one of the remainders for all integers **k** when **N** is divided by **k** for **k** from **1** to **N + 1**.

The solution to the above inequality is nothing but integers **k** from **(N / (x + 1), N / x]** of length **N / x – N / (x + 1) = N / (x ^{2} + x)**. Therefore, iterate from

**k = 1**to

**ceil(sqrt(N))**and store all the unique

**N % k**. What if the above

**k**is greater than

**ceil(sqrt(N))**? They will always correspond to values

**0 ≤ x < ceil(sqrt(N))**. So, again start storing remainders from

**N / (ceil(sqrt(N)) – 1**to

**0**and return the final answer with all the possible remainders.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

`// C++ implementation of the approach ` `#include <bits/stdc++.h> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `typedef` `long` `long` `int` `ll; ` ` ` `// Function to find all the distinct ` `// remainders when n is divided by ` `// all the elements from ` `// the range [1, n + 1] ` `void` `findRemainders(ll n) ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `// Set will be used to store ` ` ` `// the remainders in order ` ` ` `// to eliminate duplicates ` ` ` `set<ll> vc; ` ` ` ` ` `// Find the remainders ` ` ` `for` `(ll i = 1; i <= ` `ceil` `(` `sqrt` `(n)); i++) ` ` ` `vc.insert(n / i); ` ` ` `for` `(ll i = n / ` `ceil` `(` `sqrt` `(n)) - 1; i >= 0; i--) ` ` ` `vc.insert(i); ` ` ` ` ` `// Print the contents of the set ` ` ` `for` `(` `auto` `it : vc) ` ` ` `cout << it << ` `" "` `; ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver code ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `ll n = 5; ` ` ` ` ` `findRemainders(n); ` ` ` ` ` `return` `0; ` `} ` |

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## Java

`// Java implementation of the approach ` `import` `java.util.*; ` ` ` `class` `GFG ` `{ ` ` ` `// Function to find all the distinct ` `// remainders when n is divided by ` `// all the elements from ` `// the range [1, n + 1] ` `static` `void` `findRemainders(` `long` `n) ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `// Set will be used to store ` ` ` `// the remainders in order ` ` ` `// to eliminate duplicates ` ` ` `HashSet<Long> vc = ` `new` `HashSet<Long>(); ` ` ` ` ` `// Find the remainders ` ` ` `for` `(` `long` `i = ` `1` `; i <= Math.ceil(Math.sqrt(n)); i++) ` ` ` `vc.add(n / i); ` ` ` `for` `(` `long` `i = (` `long` `) (n / Math.ceil(Math.sqrt(n)) - ` `1` `); ` ` ` `i >= ` `0` `; i--) ` ` ` `vc.add(i); ` ` ` ` ` `// Print the contents of the set ` ` ` `for` `(` `long` `it : vc) ` ` ` `System.out.print(it+ ` `" "` `); ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver code ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` `{ ` ` ` `long` `n = ` `5` `; ` ` ` ` ` `findRemainders(n); ` `} ` `} ` ` ` `// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar ` |

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## Python3

`# Python3 implementation of the approach ` `from` `math ` `import` `ceil, floor, sqrt ` ` ` `# Function to find all the distinct ` `# remainders when n is divided by ` `# all the elements from ` `# the range [1, n + 1] ` `def` `findRemainders(n): ` ` ` ` ` `# Set will be used to store ` ` ` `# the remainders in order ` ` ` `# to eliminate duplicates ` ` ` `vc ` `=` `dict` `() ` ` ` ` ` `# Find the remainders ` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `1` `, ceil(sqrt(n)) ` `+` `1` `): ` ` ` `vc[n ` `/` `/` `i] ` `=` `1` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(n ` `/` `/` `ceil(sqrt(n)) ` `-` `1` `, ` `-` `1` `, ` `-` `1` `): ` ` ` `vc[i] ` `=` `1` ` ` ` ` `# Print the contents of the set ` ` ` `for` `it ` `in` `sorted` `(vc): ` ` ` `print` `(it, end ` `=` `" "` `) ` ` ` `# Driver code ` `n ` `=` `5` ` ` `findRemainders(n) ` ` ` `# This code is contributed by Mohit Kumar ` |

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## C#

`// C# implementation of the approach ` `using` `System; ` `using` `System.Collections.Generic; ` ` ` `class` `GFG ` `{ ` ` ` `// Function to find all the distinct ` `// remainders when n is divided by ` `// all the elements from ` `// the range [1, n + 1] ` `static` `void` `findRemainders(` `long` `n) ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `// Set will be used to store ` ` ` `// the remainders in order ` ` ` `// to eliminate duplicates ` ` ` `List<` `long` `> vc = ` `new` `List<` `long` `>(); ` ` ` ` ` `// Find the remainders ` ` ` ` ` `for` `(` `long` `i = 1; i <= Math.Ceiling(Math.Sqrt(n)); i++) ` ` ` `vc.Add(n / i); ` ` ` `for` `(` `long` `i = (` `long` `) (n / Math.Ceiling(Math.Sqrt(n)) - 1); ` ` ` `i >= 0; i--) ` ` ` `vc.Add(i); ` ` ` `vc.Reverse(); ` ` ` ` ` `// Print the contents of the set ` ` ` `foreach` `(` `long` `it ` `in` `vc) ` ` ` `Console.Write(it + ` `" "` `); ` `} ` ` ` `// Driver code ` `public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args) ` `{ ` ` ` `long` `n = 5; ` ` ` ` ` `findRemainders(n); ` `} ` `} ` ` ` `// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992 ` |

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**Output:**

0 1 2 5

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