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Data Science Lifecycle
  • Last Updated : 01 Oct, 2020

Data Science Lifecycle revolves around the use of machine learning and different analytical strategies to produce insights and predictions from information in order to acquire a commercial enterprise objective. The complete method includes a number of steps like data cleaning, preparation, modelling, model evaluation, etc. It is a lengthy procedure and may additionally take quite a few months to complete. So, it is very essential to have a generic structure to observe for each and every hassle at hand. The globally mentioned structure in fixing any analytical problem is referred to as a Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining or CRISP-DM framework.

Let us understand what is the need for Data Science?

Earlier data used to be much less and generally accessible in a well-structured form, that we could save effortlessly and easily in Excel sheets, and with the help of Business Intelligence tools data can be processed efficiently. But Today we used to deals with large amounts of data like about 3.0 quintals bytes of records is producing on each and every day, which ultimately results in an explosion of records and data.  According to recent researches, It is estimated that 1.9 MB of data and records are created in a second that too through a single individual.

So this a very big challenge for any organization to deal with such a massive amount of data generating every second.  For handling and evaluating this data we required some very powerful, complex algorithms and technologies and this is where Data science comes into the picture.  

The following are some primary motives for the use of Data science technology:

  1. It helps to convert the big quantity of uncooked and unstructured records into significant insights.
  2. It can assist in unique predictions such as a range of surveys, elections, etc.
  3. It also helps in automating transportation such as growing a self-driving car, we can say which is the future of transportation.
  4. Companies are shifting towards Data science and opting for this technology. Amazon,  Netflix, etc, which cope with the big quantity of data, are the use of information science algorithms for higher consumer experience.

The lifecycle of Data Science


1. Business Understanding: The complete cycle revolves around the enterprise goal. What will you resolve if you do no longer have a specific problem? It is extraordinarily essential to apprehend the commercial enterprise goal sincerely due to the fact that will be your ultimate aim of the analysis. After desirable perception only we can set the precise aim of evaluation that is in sync with the enterprise objective. You need to understand if the customer desires to minimize savings loss, or if they prefer to predict the rate of a commodity, etc.

2. Data Understanding: After enterprise understanding, the subsequent step is data understanding. This includes a series of all the reachable data. Here you need to intently work with the commercial enterprise group as they are certainly conscious of what information is present, what facts should be used for this commercial enterprise problem, and different information. This step includes describing the data, their structure, their relevance, their records type. Explore the information using graphical plots. Basically, extracting any data that you can get about the information through simply exploring the data.

3. Preparation of Data: Next comes the data preparation stage. This consists of steps like choosing the applicable data, integrating the data by means of merging the data sets, cleaning it, treating the lacking values through either eliminating them or imputing them, treating inaccurate data through eliminating them, additionally test for outliers the use of box plots and cope with them. Constructing new data, derive new elements from present ones. Format the data into the preferred structure, eliminate undesirable columns and features. Data preparation is the most time-consuming but arguably the most essential step in the complete existence cycle. Your model will be as accurate as your data.

4. Exploratory Data Analysis: This step includes getting some concept about the answer and elements affecting it, earlier than constructing the real model. Distribution of data inside distinctive variables of a character is explored graphically the usage of bar-graphs, Relations between distinct aspects are captured via graphical representations like scatter plots and warmth maps. Many data visualization strategies are considerably used to discover each and every characteristic individually and by means of combining them with different features.

5. Data Modeling: Data modeling is the coronary heart of data analysis. A model takes the organized data as input and gives the preferred output. This step consists of selecting the suitable kind of model, whether the problem is a classification problem, or a regression problem or a clustering problem. After deciding on the model family, amongst the number of algorithms amongst that family, we need to cautiously pick out the algorithms to put into effect and enforce them. We need to tune the hyperparameters of every model to obtain the preferred performance. We additionally need to make positive there is the right stability between overall performance and generalizability. We do no longer desire the model to study the data and operate poorly on new data.

6. Model Evaluation: Here the model is evaluated for checking if it is geared up to be deployed. The model is examined on an unseen data, evaluated on a cautiously thought out set of assessment metrics. We additionally need to make positive that the model conforms to reality. If we do not acquire a quality end result in the evaluation, we have to re-iterate the complete modelling procedure until the preferred stage of metrics is achieved. Any data science solution, a machine learning model, simply like a human, must evolve, must be capable to enhance itself with new data, adapt to a new evaluation metric. We can construct more than one model for a certain phenomenon, however, a lot of them may additionally be imperfect. The model assessment helps us select and construct an ideal model.

7. Model Deployment: The model after a rigorous assessment is at the end deployed in the preferred structure and channel. This is the last step in the data science life cycle. Each step in the data science life cycle defined above must be laboured upon carefully. If any step is performed improperly, and hence, have an effect on the subsequent step and the complete effort goes to waste. For example, if data is no longer accumulated properly, you’ll lose records and you will no longer be constructing an ideal model. If information is not cleaned properly, the model will no longer work. If the model is not evaluated properly, it will fail in the actual world. Right from Business perception to model deployment, every step has to be given appropriate attention, time, and effort.


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