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Basic Applications of Computers

  • Last Updated : 06 Jun, 2021

In this article, we will learn what exactly a computer is, how it affects our lives, and the uses of computers in our life. 

What is a computer?

The term computer was taken from the Greek word compute means calculation and the computer was a person or device that did computation. A computer is a machine used to manipulate data or information and perform mathematical and logical operations. Modern computers perform a wide range of tasks, store retrieve, and process information. Using a computer we can create/modify documents, send/receive emails, browse information on the internet, and play video games. After the invention of computer science and technology became too advanced. Today we can not imagine growing our technology without computers. 

Components of the computer system:

The various components of the computer system are classified into two groups. 

  • Hardware
  • Software

1. Hardware: Hardware is the physical tangible component of the computer system. This type of component is touchable. CPU, Mouse, Keyboard are examples of hardware components. So, the hardware of the computer system are:



  • Input Device: Input devices allow the user to enter data/information in the CPU (Central Processing Unit). Mouse, Keyboard, scanner, barcode reader are general examples of input devices. 
  • Output Device: Output devices input the processed data/information into human-readable form. Monitor, speaker, projector, printer are general examples of output devices. 
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU): The CPU is referred to as the brain of a computer system. It is used to processed data/information and provides output to output devices.  The CU (control unit), ALU (arithmetic and logical unit), and registers are components of the CPU.
  • Storage: In a computer, storage devices are used to store the data or information that entered into the computer system and the output comes from processing the information or data.

2. Software: Software is a collection of programs (set of instructions), data, and protocols. It is not in material form so we can not touch such types of components. The execution of software programs is performed by hardware. Firmware, operating systems, applications are examples of software. 

Features of Computer

Now we will discuss the features of the computer:

Speed: A computer is a time-saving device. It performs several calculations and tasks in few seconds that we take hours to solve. The speed of a computer is measure in terms of GigaHertz and MegaHertz. 

Accuracy: A calculation or task performed by a computer is accurate the chances of occurring errors are minimal. The errors occur in a computer by entering wrong data by a human being. A computer performs several tasks and calculations so quickly and accurately. 

Memory: A computer can store billions of records as per requirement and these records can easily accessible with full accuracy. The storing capacity of computer memory is measured in terms of Bytes, Kilobytes (KB), Megabytes (MB), Gigabyte(GB), and Terabyte(TB).

Versatility: A computer can perform more than one task at the same time, this feature is called versatility. For example, we can create our project using PowerPoint and Wordpad while listening to music or we can design a website while listening to music.

Automation: Today the world is moving toward AI (Artificial Intelligence) based technology. Once instructions are programmed, a computer can perform work automatically. This feature of the computer replaces thousands of workers by performing tasks automatically. 



Reliability: A computer is a reliable device. The output results never differ until the input is different. If an input is the same then output won’t be different. 

Diligence: A human can not work for several hours without taking a rest whereas a computer device never gets tired. A computer can perform millions of calculations constantly with full accuracy without taking a rest. 

Uses of Computer

Computers are used in every field of life, such as homes, businesses, educational institutions, research organizations, the medical field, government offices, entertainment, etc. Today we can not imagine growing our technology without computers. The various field where the computer is very essential are:

Role of Computer in Science: Today computer is the primary work tool in the field of science. It is the best-suited machine for collecting, analyzing, classifying, and storing data. It becomes the most essential medium to spread knowledge internally and internationally. It allows scientists from different locations to work together and share ideas on the same project. 

Role of Computer in Defense System: A computer performs a vital to control defense system. Computers are used to track airplanes, missiles, tanks, and different kinds of weapons. Once the radar system tracks a missile and artificial intelligence is programmed to target a missile and destroy it before it comes on the surface. It also used for GPS tracking, controlling defense vehicles, records of all members of the military. 

Role of Computer in Medical: The computer plays a very important role in medical science such as record patients’ information monitoring heart rate, oxygen level, and blood pressure. To conduct various surgeries junior doctors get the help of another professional doctor by web conferencing. Research is also spread with the help of computers in the health sector. 

Role of Computer in Education: Today learning becomes easy because of computers. Anyone employed or student can learn any stage of life with the help of a computer. Computers are very crucial for online classes, download study material on the internet. Computers are also used to track student attendance and learning strategies. Coaching and institutes increased their areas by audio-visual aids using computers. 

Role of Computer in Banking: A computer performs a crucial role in banking sectors, by storing several account holder details on a bank server. All transactions such as deposits and withdrawals perform by a computer. A banking company can easily monitor all ATMs and passbook printing machines. 

Role of Computer in Government Sectors: Government can easily monitor government sectors such as road services, railway, development, and other rising funds. The information of every citizen is stored on the server through the computer. 

Role of Computer in Entertainment: Today most people are so busy and they do not easily get time to fresh their mind. We can play various interesting video games using a computer. We can watch movies, TV shows, and reality shows on the computer. A computer is also used to create sarcastic memes and make us happy. 



Sample Problems

Question 1. What is a computer?

Solution:

A computer is a machine used to manipulate data or information and perform mathematical and logical operations.

Question 2. Write three components of computer hardware?

Solution:

These are the following three main components of computer hardware. 

  1. Input Device
  2. Output Device
  3. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Question 3. Write three popular operating systems.

Solution:

These are the following three popular operating systems.

  1. Microsoft Window
  2. Ubuntu
  3. Mac OS

Question 4. What is hardware?

Solution:

Hardware is the physical tangible component of the computer system. This type of component is touchable. CPU, Mouse, Keyboard are examples of hardware components. 

Question 5. What is software?

Solution: 

Software is a collection of programs (set of instructions), data, and protocols. It is not in material form so we can not touch such types of components. 

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