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An introduction to Flowcharts

  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 20 Nov, 2020

What is a Flowchart? 
Flowchart is a graphical representation of an algorithm. Programmers often use it as a program-planning tool to solve a problem. It makes use of symbols which are connected among them to indicate the flow of information and processing. 
The process of drawing a flowchart for an algorithm is known as “flowcharting”. 

Basic Symbols used in Flowchart Designs

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  1. Terminal: The oval symbol indicates Start, Stop and Halt in a program’s logic flow. A pause/halt is generally used in a program logic under some error conditions. Terminal is the first and last symbols in the flowchart. 
     



  • Input/Output: A parallelogram denotes any function of input/output type. Program instructions that take input from input devices and display output on output devices are indicated with parallelogram in a flowchart. 
     

  • Processing: A box represents arithmetic instructions. All arithmetic processes such as adding, subtracting, multiplication and division are indicated by action or process symbol. 
     

  • Decision Diamond symbol represents a decision point. Decision based operations such as yes/no question or true/false are indicated by diamond in flowchart. 
     

  • Connectors: Whenever flowchart becomes complex or it spreads over more than one page, it is useful to use connectors to avoid any confusions. It is represented by a circle. 
     

  • Flow lines: Flow lines indicate the exact sequence in which instructions are executed. Arrows represent the direction of flow of control and relationship among different symbols of flowchart. 
     

Advantages of Flowchart:

  • Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of system.
  • Flowcharts act as a guide for blueprint during program designed.
  • Flowcharts helps in debugging process.
  • With the help of flowcharts programs can be easily analyzed.
  • It provides better documentation.
  • Flowcharts serve as a good proper documentation.

Disadvantages of Flowchart:

  • It is difficult to draw flowchart for large and complex programs.
  • In this their is no standard to determine the amount of detail.
  • Difficult to reproduce the flowcharts.
  • It is very difficult to modify the Flowchart.

Example : Draw a flowchart to input two numbers from user and display the largest of two numbers 
 

 

C




// C program to find largest of two numbers
 
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int num1, num2, largest;
 
    /*Input two numbers*/
    printf("Enter two numbers:\n");
    scanf("%d%d", &num1, &num2);
 
    /*check if a is greater than b*/
    if (num1 > num2)
        largest = num1;
    else
        largest = num2;
 
    /*Print the largest number*/
    printf("%d", largest);
 
    return 0;
}

C++




// C++ program to find largest of two numbers
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
    int num1, num2, largest;
 
    /*Input two numbers*/
    cout << "Enter two numbers:\n";
    cin >> num1;
    cin >> num2;
 
    /*check if a is greater than b*/
    if (num1 > num2)
        largest = num1;
    else
        largest = num2;
 
    /*Print the largest number*/
    cout << largest;
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program to find largest of two numbers
import java.util.Scanner;
public class largest {
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        int num1, num2, max;
 
        /*Input two numbers*/
        Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
        System.out.println("Enter two numbers:");
 
        num1 = sc.nextInt();
        num2 = sc.nextInt();
 
        /*check whether a is greater than b or not*/
        if (num1 > num2)
            max = num1;
        else
            max = num2;
 
        /*Print the largest number*/
        System.out.println(max);
    }
}

C#




// C# program to find largest of two numbers
using System;
using System.IO;
 
class GFG
{
    static public void Main ()
    {
         
        int num1, num2, max;
 
        /*Input two numbers*/
        Console.WriteLine("Enter two numbers:");
 
        num1 = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
        num2 = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
 
        /*check whether a is greater than b or not*/
        if (num1 > num2)
            max = num1;
        else
            max = num2;
 
        /*Print the largest number*/
        Console.WriteLine(max);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by NamrataSrivastava1

Output

Enter two numbers:
10 30
30

References: 
Computer Fundamentals by Pradeep K. Sinha and Priti Sinha
 




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