# Alternate XOR operations on sorted array

• Last Updated : 18 Nov, 2021

Given an array arr[] and two integers X and K. The task is to perform the following operation on array K times:

1. Sort the array.
2. XOR every alternate element of the sorted array with X i.e. arr, arr, arr, …

After repeating the above steps K times, print the maximum and the minimum element in the modified array.
Examples:

Input: arr[] = {9, 7, 11, 15, 5}, K = 1, X = 2
Output: 7 13
Since the operations has to be performed only once,
the sorted array will be {5, 7, 9, 11, 15}
Now, apply xor with 2 on alternate elements i.e. 5, 9 and 15.
{5 ^ 2, 7, 9 ^ 2, 11, 15 ^ 2} which is equal to
{7, 7, 11, 11, 13}
Input: arr[] = {605, 986}, K = 548, X = 569
Output: 605 986

Approach: Instead of sorting the array in every iteration, a frequency array can be maintained that will store the frequency of each element in the array. Traversing from 1 to maximum element in the array, the elements can be processed in the sorted order and after every operation, the frequency of the same elements can be adjusted when the alternate elements get XORed with the given integer. Check the programming implementation for more details.
Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

 `// C++ implementation of the approach``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `#define MAX 100000` `// Function to find the maximum and the``// minimum elements from the array after``// performing the given operation k times``void` `xorOnSortedArray(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `k, ``int` `x)``{` `    ``// To store the current sequence of elements``    ``int` `arr1[MAX + 1] = { 0 };` `    ``// To store the next sequence of elements``    ``// after xoring with current elements``    ``int` `arr2[MAX + 1] = { 0 };``    ``int` `xor_val[MAX + 1];` `    ``// Store the frequency of elements of arr[] in arr1[]``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``arr1[arr[i]]++;` `    ``// Storing all precomputed XOR values so that``    ``// we don't have to do it again and again``    ``// as XOR is a costly operation``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++)``        ``xor_val[i] = i ^ x;` `    ``// Perform the operations k times``    ``while` `(k--) {` `        ``// The value of count decide on how many elements``        ``// we have to apply XOR operation``        ``int` `count = 0;``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++) {``            ``int` `store = arr1[i];` `            ``// If current element is present in``            ``// the array to be modified``            ``if` `(arr1[i] > 0) {` `                ``// Suppose i = m and arr1[i] = num, it means``                ``// 'm' appears 'num' times``                ``// If the count is even we have to perform``                ``// XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                ``// from the 0th index because count is even``                ``// and we have to perform XOR operations``                ``// starting with initial 'm'``                ``// Hence there will be ceil(num/2) operations on``                ``// 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                ``if` `(count % 2 == 0) {``                    ``int` `div` `= ``ceil``((``float``)arr1[i] / 2);` `                    ``// Decrease the frequency of 'm' from arr1[]``                    ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] - ``div``;` `                    ``// Increase the frequency of 'm^x' in arr2[]``                    ``arr2[xor_val[i]] += ``div``;``                ``}` `                ``// If the count is odd we have to perform``                ``// XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                ``// from the 1st index because count is odd``                ``// and we have to leave the 0th 'm'``                ``// Hence there will be (num/2) XOR operations on``                ``// 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                ``else` `if` `(count % 2 != 0) {``                    ``int` `div` `= arr1[i] / 2;``                    ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] - ``div``;``                    ``arr2[xor_val[i]] += ``div``;``                ``}``            ``}` `            ``// Updating the count by frequency of``            ``// the current elements as we have``            ``// processed that many elements``            ``count = count + store;``        ``}` `        ``// Updating arr1[] which will now store the``        ``// next sequence of elements``        ``// At this time, arr1[] stores the remaining``        ``// 'm' on which XOR was not performed and``        ``// arr2[] stores the frequency of 'm^x' i.e.``        ``// those 'm' on which operation was performed``        ``// Updating arr1[] with frequency of remaining``        ``// 'm' & frequency of 'm^x' from arr2[]``        ``// With help of arr2[], we prevent sorting of``        ``// the array again and again``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++) {``            ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] + arr2[i];` `            ``// Resetting arr2[] for next iteration``            ``arr2[i] = 0;``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``// Finding the maximum and the minimum element``    ``// from the modified array after the operations``    ``int` `min = INT_MAX;``    ``int` `max = INT_MIN;``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++) {``        ``if` `(arr1[i] > 0) {``            ``if` `(min > i)``                ``min = i;``            ``if` `(max < i)``                ``max = i;``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``// Printing the max and the min element``    ``cout << min << ``" "` `<< max << endl;``}` `// Driver code``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `arr[] = { 605, 986 };``    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);``    ``int` `k = 548, x = 569;` `    ``xorOnSortedArray(arr, n, k, x);` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java implementation of the approach``class` `GFG``{``    ``static` `int` `MAX = ``100000``;` `    ``// Function to find the maximum and the``    ``// minimum elements from the array after``    ``// performing the given operation k times``    ``public` `static` `void` `xorOnSortedArray(``int``[] arr, ``int` `n,``                                        ``int` `k, ``int` `x)``    ``{` `        ``// To store the current sequence of elements``        ``int``[] arr1 = ``new` `int``[MAX + ``1``];` `        ``// To store the next sequence of elements``        ``// after xoring with current elements``        ``int``[] arr2 = ``new` `int``[MAX + ``1``];``        ``int``[] xor_val = ``new` `int``[MAX + ``1``];` `        ``// Store the frequency of elements``        ``// of arr[] in arr1[]``        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < n; i++)``            ``arr1[arr[i]]++;` `        ``// Storing all precomputed XOR values so that``        ``// we don't have to do it again and again``        ``// as XOR is a costly operation``        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i <= MAX; i++)``            ``xor_val[i] = i ^ x;` `        ``// Perform the operations k times``        ``while` `(k-- > ``0``)``        ``{` `            ``// The value of count decide on how many elements``            ``// we have to apply XOR operation``            ``int` `count = ``0``;``            ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i <= MAX; i++)``            ``{``                ``int` `store = arr1[i];` `                ``// If current element is present in``                ``// the array to be modified``                ``if` `(arr1[i] > ``0``)``                ``{` `                    ``// Suppose i = m and arr1[i] = num, it means``                    ``// 'm' appears 'num' times``                    ``// If the count is even we have to perform``                    ``// XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                    ``// from the 0th index because count is even``                    ``// and we have to perform XOR operations``                    ``// starting with initial 'm'``                    ``// Hence there will be ceil(num/2) operations on``                    ``// 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                    ``if` `(count % ``2` `== ``0``)``                    ``{``                        ``int` `div = (``int``) Math.ceil(arr1[i] / ``2``);` `                        ``// Decrease the frequency of 'm' from arr1[]``                        ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] - div;` `                        ``// Increase the frequency of 'm^x' in arr2[]``                        ``arr2[xor_val[i]] += div;``                    ``}` `                    ``// If the count is odd we have to perform``                    ``// XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                    ``// from the 1st index because count is odd``                    ``// and we have to leave the 0th 'm'``                    ``// Hence there will be (num/2) XOR operations on``                    ``// 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                    ``else` `if` `(count % ``2` `!= ``0``)``                    ``{``                        ``int` `div = arr1[i] / ``2``;``                        ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] - div;``                        ``arr2[xor_val[i]] += div;``                    ``}``                ``}` `                ``// Updating the count by frequency of``                ``// the current elements as we have``                ``// processed that many elements``                ``count = count + store;``            ``}` `            ``// Updating arr1[] which will now store the``            ``// next sequence of elements``            ``// At this time, arr1[] stores the remaining``            ``// 'm' on which XOR was not performed and``            ``// arr2[] stores the frequency of 'm^x' i.e.``            ``// those 'm' on which operation was performed``            ``// Updating arr1[] with frequency of remaining``            ``// 'm' & frequency of 'm^x' from arr2[]``            ``// With help of arr2[], we prevent sorting of``            ``// the array again and again``            ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i <= MAX; i++)``            ``{``                ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] + arr2[i];` `                ``// Resetting arr2[] for next iteration``                ``arr2[i] = ``0``;``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``// Finding the maximum and the minimum element``        ``// from the modified array after the operations``        ``int` `min = Integer.MAX_VALUE;``        ``int` `max = Integer.MIN_VALUE;``        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i <= MAX; i++)``        ``{``            ``if` `(arr1[i] > ``0``)``            ``{``                ``if` `(min > i)``                    ``min = i;``                ``if` `(max < i)``                    ``max = i;``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``// Printing the max and the min element``        ``System.out.println(min + ``" "` `+ max);``    ``}` `    ``// Driver code``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``int``[] arr = { ``605``, ``986` `};``        ``int` `n = arr.length;``        ``int` `k = ``548``, x = ``569``;``        ``xorOnSortedArray(arr, n, k, x);` `    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by``// sanjeev2552`

## Python 3

 `# Python 3 implementation of the approach``MAX` `=` `10000``import` `sys``from` `math ``import` `ceil, floor` `# Function to find the maximum and the``# minimum elements from the array after``# performing the given operation k times``def` `xorOnSortedArray(arr, n, k, x):``    ` `    ``# To store the current sequence of elements``    ``arr1 ``=` `[``0` `for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX` `+` `1``)]` `    ``# To store the next sequence of elements``    ``# after xoring with current elements``    ``arr2 ``=` `[``0` `for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX` `+` `1``)]``    ``xor_val ``=` `[``0` `for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX` `+` `1``)]` `    ``# Store the frequency of elements``    ``# of arr[] in arr1[]``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(n):``        ``arr1[arr[i]] ``+``=` `1` `    ``# Storing all precomputed XOR values``    ``# so that we don't have to do it``    ``# again and again as XOR is a costly operation``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX` `+` `1``):``        ``xor_val[i] ``=` `i ^ x` `    ``# Perform the operations k times``    ``while` `(k > ``0``):``        ``k ``-``=` `1``        ` `        ``# The value of count decide on``        ``# how many elements we have to``        ``# apply XOR operation``        ``count ``=` `0``        ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX` `+` `1``):``            ``store ``=` `arr1[i]` `            ``# If current element is present in``            ``# the array to be modified``            ``if` `(arr1[i] > ``0``):``                ` `                ``# Suppose i = m and arr1[i] = num,``                ``# it means 'm' appears 'num' times``                ``# If the count is even we have to``                ``# perform XOR operation on alternate``                ``# 'm' starting from the 0th index because``                ``# count is even and we have to perform``                ``# XOR operations starting with initial 'm'``                ``# Hence there will be ceil(num/2)``                ``# operations on 'm' that will change``                ``# 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                ``if` `(count ``%` `2` `=``=` `0``):``                    ``div ``=` `arr1[i] ``/``/` `2` `+` `1` `                    ``# Decrease the frequency of``                    ``# 'm' from arr1[]``                    ``arr1[i] ``=` `arr1[i] ``-` `div` `                    ``# Increase the frequency of``                    ``# 'm^x' in arr2[]``                    ``arr2[xor_val[i]] ``+``=` `div` `                ``# If the count is odd we have to perform``                ``# XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                ``# from the 1st index because count is odd``                ``# and we have to leave the 0th 'm'``                ``# Hence there will be (num/2) XOR operations on``                ``# 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                ``elif` `(count ``%` `2` `!``=` `0``):``                    ``div ``=` `arr1[i] ``/``/` `2``                    ``arr1[i] ``=` `arr1[i] ``-` `div``                    ``arr2[xor_val[i]] ``+``=` `div` `            ``# Updating the count by frequency of``            ``# the current elements as we have``            ``# processed that many elements``            ``count ``=` `count ``+` `store` `        ``# Updating arr1[] which will now store the``        ``# next sequence of elements``        ``# At this time, arr1[] stores the remaining``        ``# 'm' on which XOR was not performed and``        ``# arr2[] stores the frequency of 'm^x' i.e.``        ``# those 'm' on which operation was performed``        ``# Updating arr1[] with frequency of remaining``        ``# 'm' & frequency of 'm^x' from arr2[]``        ``# With help of arr2[], we prevent sorting of``        ``# the array again and again``        ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX``+``1``):``            ``arr1[i] ``=` `arr1[i] ``+` `arr2[i]` `            ``# Resetting arr2[] for next iteration``            ``arr2[i] ``=` `0` `    ``# Finding the maximum and the minimum element``    ``# from the modified array after the operations``    ``mn ``=` `sys.maxsize``    ``mx ``=` `-``sys.maxsize``-``1``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``MAX` `+` `1``):``        ``if` `(arr1[i] > ``0``):``            ``if` `(mn > i):``                ``mn ``=` `i``            ``if` `(mx < i):``                ``mx ``=` `i` `    ``# Printing the max and the min element``    ``print``(mn,mx)` `# Driver code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``arr ``=` `[``605``, ``986``]``    ``n ``=` `len``(arr)``    ``k ``=` `548``    ``x ``=` `569` `    ``xorOnSortedArray(arr, n, k, x)``    ` `# This code is contributed by Surendra_Gangwar`

## C#

 `// C# implementation of the approach``using` `System;``    ` `class` `GFG``{``    ``static` `int` `MAX = 100000;` `    ``// Function to find the maximum and the``    ``// minimum elements from the array after``    ``// performing the given operation k times``    ``public` `static` `void` `xorOnSortedArray(``int``[] arr, ``int` `n,``                                        ``int` `k, ``int` `x)``    ``{` `        ``// To store the current sequence of elements``        ``int``[] arr1 = ``new` `int``[MAX + 1];` `        ``// To store the next sequence of elements``        ``// after xoring with current elements``        ``int``[] arr2 = ``new` `int``[MAX + 1];``        ``int``[] xor_val = ``new` `int``[MAX + 1];` `        ``// Store the frequency of elements``        ``// of arr[] in arr1[]``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``            ``arr1[arr[i]]++;` `        ``// Storing all precomputed XOR values so that``        ``// we don't have to do it again and again``        ``// as XOR is a costly operation``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++)``            ``xor_val[i] = i ^ x;` `        ``// Perform the operations k times``        ``while` `(k-- > 0)``        ``{` `            ``// The value of count decides on``            ``// how many elements we have to``            ``// apply XOR operation``            ``int` `count = 0;``            ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++)``            ``{``                ``int` `store = arr1[i];` `                ``// If current element is present in``                ``// the array to be modified``                ``if` `(arr1[i] > 0)``                ``{` `                    ``// Suppose i = m and arr1[i] = num,``                    ``// it means 'm' appears 'num' times``                    ``// If the count is even we have to perform``                    ``// XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                    ``// from the 0th index because count is even``                    ``// and we have to perform XOR operations``                    ``// starting with initial 'm'``                    ``// Hence there will be ceil(num/2) operations on``                    ``// 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                    ``if` `(count % 2 == 0)``                    ``{``                        ``int` `div = (``int``) Math.Ceiling((``double``)(arr1[i] / 2));` `                        ``// Decrease the frequency of 'm' from arr1[]``                        ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] - div;` `                        ``// Increase the frequency of 'm^x' in arr2[]``                        ``arr2[xor_val[i]] += div;``                    ``}` `                    ``// If the count is odd we have to perform``                    ``// XOR operation on alternate 'm' starting``                    ``// from the 1st index because count is odd``                    ``// and we have to leave the 0th 'm'``                    ``// Hence there will be (num/2) XOR operations on``                    ``// 'm' that will change 'm' to xor_val[m] i.e. m^x``                    ``else` `if` `(count % 2 != 0)``                    ``{``                        ``int` `div = arr1[i] / 2;``                        ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] - div;``                        ``arr2[xor_val[i]] += div;``                    ``}``                ``}` `                ``// Updating the count by frequency of``                ``// the current elements as we have``                ``// processed that many elements``                ``count = count + store;``            ``}` `            ``// Updating arr1[] which will now store the``            ``// next sequence of elements``            ``// At this time, arr1[] stores the remaining``            ``// 'm' on which XOR was not performed and``            ``// arr2[] stores the frequency of 'm^x' i.e.``            ``// those 'm' on which operation was performed``            ``// Updating arr1[] with frequency of remaining``            ``// 'm' & frequency of 'm^x' from arr2[]``            ``// With help of arr2[], we prevent sorting of``            ``// the array again and again``            ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++)``            ``{``                ``arr1[i] = arr1[i] + arr2[i];` `                ``// Resetting arr2[] for next iteration``                ``arr2[i] = 0;``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``// Finding the maximum and the minimum element``        ``// from the modified array after the operations``        ``int` `min = ``int``.MaxValue;``        ``int` `max = ``int``.MinValue;``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i <= MAX; i++)``        ``{``            ``if` `(arr1[i] > 0)``            ``{``                ``if` `(min > i)``                    ``min = i;``                ``if` `(max < i)``                    ``max = i;``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``// Printing the max and the min element``        ``Console.WriteLine(min + ``" "` `+ max);``    ``}` `    ``// Driver code``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``int``[] arr = { 605, 986 };``        ``int` `n = arr.Length;``        ``int` `k = 548, x = 569;``        ``xorOnSortedArray(arr, n, k, x);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

`605 986`

Time Complexity: O(n + k * MAX)

Auxiliary Space: O(MAX)

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