Text is defined as way to describe data related to graphical representation. They work as a labels to any pictorial or graphical representation. In this article we will learn to to add a text to a plot in R Language by using the ** text()** and

**functions.**

`mtext()`

Syntax:text(x, y, labels)

Parameters:

x and y:numeric values specifying the coordinates of the text to plot

labels:the text to be written

Returns:Added text to plot

**Example 1:**

`# R program to add text to plot ` ` ` `# Calling data set ` `d<-` `head` `(mtcars) ` ` ` `# Plotting the graph ` `plot` `(d[, ` `'wt'` `], d[, ` `'mpg'` `], ` ` ` `main = ` `" Car Weight vs. Milage "` `, ` ` ` `xlab = ` `"Miles"` `, ylab = ` `" Weight"` `, ` ` ` `pch = 19, col = ` `"darkgreen"` `) ` ` ` `# Calling text() function ` `text` `(d[, ` `'wt'` `], d[, ` `'mpg'` `], ` `row.names` `(d), ` ` ` `cex = 0.88, pos = 2, col = ` `"darkgreen"` `) ` |

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**Output:**

In above example, the text is added to plot of ‘mtcar’ dataset.

**Example 2:** Implementation of text() to add mathematical annotation to a plot

`# R program to add text to plot ` ` ` `# Plotting the graph ` `plot` `(1:5, 1:5, ` ` ` `main = ` `"text() Function examples"` `) ` ` ` `# Calling text() function ` `text` `(2, 3, ` `expression` `(` `hat` `(beta) == (X^t * X)^{-1} * X^t * y)) ` `text` `(3, 4, ` `expression` `(` `bar` `(x) == ` `sum` `(` `frac` `(x[i], n), i==1, n))) ` |

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**Output :**

In above example the the

function is used to add mathematical annotation to a plot**text()**

##### Add text to the margins of the graph

** mtext()** function is used to add text to the margins of the plot.

Syntax:mtext(text, side)

Parameters:

text:text to be written

side:An integer specifying the side of the plot, such as: bottom, left, top, and right.

Returns:Added text in the margins of the graph

**Example:**

`# R program to add text to a plot ` ` ` `# Creating a plot ` `plot` `(1:5, 1:5, ` ` ` `main = ` `"mtext examples"` `) ` ` ` `# Calling mtext() function ` `mtext` `(` `"mtext() function"` `, side = 3) ` |

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**Output:**

Here, in above example the side specifies the side of the plot such as bottom, left, top, right . And in the given the side=3 i.e the top part of the plot

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