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Adding Text to Plots in R programming – text() and mtext () Function
• Last Updated : 14 Jul, 2020

Text is defined as way to describe data related to graphical representation. They work as a labels to any pictorial or graphical representation. In this article we will learn to to add a text to a plot in R Language by using the `text()` and `mtext()` functions.

Syntax: text(x, y, labels)

Parameters:
x and y: numeric values specifying the coordinates of the text to plot
labels: the text to be written

Returns: Added text to plot

Example 1:

 `# R program to add text to plot`` ` `# Calling data set``d<-``head``(mtcars)`` ` `# Plotting the graph``plot``(d[, ``'wt'``], d[, ``'mpg'``], ``     ``main = ``" Car Weight vs. Milage "``,``     ``xlab = ``"Miles"``, ylab = ``" Weight"``,``     ``pch = 19, col = ``"darkgreen"``)`` ` `# Calling text() function``text``(d[, ``'wt'``], d[, ``'mpg'``],  ``row.names``(d),``     ``cex = 0.88, pos = 2, col = ``"darkgreen"``)`

Output: In above example, the text is added to plot of ‘mtcar’ dataset.

Example 2: Implementation of text() to add mathematical annotation to a plot

 `# R program to add text to plot`` ` `# Plotting the graph``plot``(1:5, 1:5, ``     ``main = ``"text() Function  examples"``)`` ` `# Calling text() function``text``(2, 3, ``expression``(``hat``(beta) == (X^t * X)^{-1} * X^t * y))``text``(3, 4, ``expression``(``bar``(x) == ``sum``(``frac``(x[i], n), i==1, n)))`

Output : In above example the the `text()` function is used to add mathematical annotation to a plot

##### Add text to the margins of the graph

`mtext()` function is used to add text to the margins of the plot.

Syntax: mtext(text, side)

Parameters:
text: text to be written
side: An integer specifying the side of the plot, such as: bottom, left, top, and right.

Returns: Added text in the margins of the graph

Example:

 `# R program to add text to a plot`` ` `# Creating a plot``plot``(1:5, 1:5, ``     ``main = ``"mtext examples"``)`` ` `# Calling mtext() function``mtext``(``"mtext() function"``, side = 3)`

Output: Here, in above example the side specifies the side of the plot such as bottom, left, top, right . And in the given the side=3 i.e the top part of the plot

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