Count BST nodes that lie in a given range

2.5

Given a Binary Search Tree (BST) and a range, count number of nodes that lie in the given range.

Examples:

Input:
        10
      /    \
    5       50
   /       /  \
 1       40   100
Range: [5, 45]

Output:  3
There are three nodes in range, 5, 10 and 40

Source: Google Question

The idea is to traverse the given binary search tree starting from root. For every node being visited, check if this node lies in range, if yes, then add 1 to result and recur for both of its children. If current node is smaller than low value of range, then recur for right child, else recur for left child.

Below is the implementation of above idea.

C++

// C++ program to count BST nodes withing a given range
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

// A BST node
struct node
{
    int data;
    struct node* left, *right;
};

// Utility function to create new node
node *newNode(int data)
{
    node *temp = new node;
    temp->data  = data;
    temp->left  = temp->right = NULL;
    return (temp);
}

// Returns count of nodes in BST in range [low, high]
int getCount(node *root, int low, int high)
{
    // Base case
    if (!root) return 0;

    // Special Optional case for improving efficiency
    if (root->data == high && root->data == low)
        return 1;

    // If current node is in range, then include it in count and
    // recur for left and right children of it
    if (root->data <= high && root->data >= low)
         return 1 + getCount(root->left, low, high) +
                    getCount(root->right, low, high);

    // If current node is smaller than low, then recur for right
    // child
    else if (root->data < low)
         return getCount(root->right, low, high);

    // Else recur for left child
    else return getCount(root->left, low, high);
}

// Driver program
int main()
{
    // Let us construct the BST shown in the above figure
    node *root        = newNode(10);
    root->left        = newNode(5);
    root->right       = newNode(50);
    root->left->left  = newNode(1);
    root->right->left = newNode(40);
    root->right->right = newNode(100);
    /* Let us constructed BST shown in above example
          10
        /    \
      5       50
     /       /  \
    1       40   100   */
    int l = 5;
    int h = 45;
    cout << "Count of nodes between [" << l << ", " << h
         << "] is " << getCount(root, l, h);
    return 0;
}

Java

// Java code to count BST nodes that
// lie in a given range
class BinarySearchTree {

    /* Class containing left and right child
    of current node and key value*/
    static class Node {
        int data;
        Node left, right;

        public Node(int item) {
            data = item;
            left = right = null;
        }
    }

    // Root of BST
    Node root;

    // Constructor
    BinarySearchTree() { 
        root = null; 
    }
    
    // Returns count of nodes in BST in 
    // range [low, high]
    int getCount(Node node, int low, int high)
    {
        // Base Case
        if(node == null)
            return 0;

        // If current node is in range, then 
        // include it in count and recur for 
        // left and right children of it
        if(node.data >= low && node.data <= high)
            return 1 + this.getCount(node.left, low, high)+
                this.getCount(node.right, low, high);
                
        // If current node is smaller than low, 
        // then recur for right child
        else if(node.data < low)
            return this.getCount(node.right, low, high);
        
        // Else recur for left child
        else
            return this.getCount(node.left, low, high);     
    }

    // Driver function
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        BinarySearchTree tree = new BinarySearchTree();
        
        tree.root = new Node(10);
        tree.root.left     = new Node(5);
        tree.root.right     = new Node(50);
        tree.root.left.left = new Node(1);
        tree.root.right.left = new Node(40);
        tree.root.right.right = new Node(100);
        /* Let us constructed BST shown in above example
          10
        /    \
      5       50
     /       /  \
    1       40   100   */
    int l=5;
    int h=45;
    System.out.println("Count of nodes between [" + l + ", "
                      + h+ "] is " + tree.getCount(tree.root,
                                                  l, h));
    }
}
// This code is contributed by Kamal Rawal


Output:
Count of nodes between [5, 45] is 3

Time complexity of the above program is O(h + k) where h is height of BST and k is number of nodes in given range.

Asked in: DE Shaw, Google

This article is contributed by Gaurav Ahirwar. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.

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