SONET stands for Synchronous Optical Network. SONET is a communication protocol, developed by Bellcore – that is used to transmit a large amount of data over relatively large distances using optical fibre. With SONET, multiple digital data streams are transfered at the same time over the optical fibre.
- Developed by Bellcore
- Used in North America
- Standardized by ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
- Similar to SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) which is used in Europe and Japan.
Why SONET is called a Synchronous Network?
A single clock (Primary Reference Clock, PRC) handles the timing of transmission of signals & equipments across the entire network.
SONET Network Elements:
- STS Multiplexer:
- Performs multipleximg of signals
- Converts electrical signal to optical signal
- STS Demultiplexer:
- Performs demultiplexing of signals
- Converts optical signal to electrical signal
- It is a repeater, that takes an optical signal and regenerates (increases the strength) it.
- Add/Drop Multiplexer:
- It allows to add signals coming from different sources into a given path or remove a signal.
Why SONET is used?
SONET is used to convert electrical signal into optical signal so that it can travel longer distances.
- Section: Portion of network connecting two neighbouring devices.
- Line: Portion of network connecting two neighbouring multiplexers.
- Path: End-to-end portion of the network.
SONET includes four functional layers:
- Path Layer:
- It is responsible for the movement of signal from its optical source to its optical destination.
- STS Mux/Demux provides path layer functions.
- Line Layer:
- It is responsible for the movement of signal across a physical line.
- STS Mux/Demux and Add/Drop Mux provides Line layer functions.
- Section Layer:
- It is responsible for the movement of signal across a physical section.
- Each device of network provides section layer functions.
- Photonic Layer:
- It corresponds to the physical layer of the OSI model.
- It includes physical specifications for the optical fibre channel (presence of light = 1 and absence of light = 0).
Advantages of SONET:
- Transmits data to large distances
- Low electromagnetic interference
- High data rates
- Large Bandwidth
- Network Devices (Hub, Repeater, Bridge, Switch, Router, Gateways and Brouter)
- Traceroute in Network Layer
- Types of Network Topology
- Computer Network | Leaky bucket algorithm
- Program to determine class, Network and Host ID of an IPv4 address
- Network configuration and trouble shooting commands in Linux
- Types of Network Address Translation (NAT)
- HMAC Algorithm in Computer Network
- Introduction of Firewall in Computer Network
- Basic Network Attacks in Computer Network
- Circuit Switching in Computer Network
- Packet Switching and Delays in Computer Network
- Routing v/s Routed Protocols in Computer Network
- Collision Domain and Broadcast Domain in Computer Network
- Difference between Unicast, Broadcast and Multicast in Computer Network
If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to firstname.lastname@example.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.
Improved By : arpankumarpal728