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Swap three variables without using temporary variable
• Difficulty Level : Medium
• Last Updated : 08 Apr, 2021

Given three variables, a, b and c, swap them without temporary variable.
Example :

```Input  : a = 10, b = 20 and c = 30
Output : a = 30, b = 10 and c = 20```

Method 1 (Using Arithmetic Operators)
The idea is to get sum in one of the two given numbers. The numbers can then be swapped using the sum and subtraction from sum.
We have already discussed swapping two variables here. We can extend the same approaches

## C++

 `// C++ program to swap three variables``// without using temporary variable.``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `// Assign c's value to a, a's value to b and``// b's value to c.``void` `swapThree(``int` `&a, ``int` `&b, ``int` `&c)``{``    ``// Store sum of all in a``    ``a = a + b + c;  ``// (a = 60)` `    ``// After this, b has value of a``    ``b = a - (b+c);  ``// (b = 60 – (20+30) =10)` `    ``// After this, c has value of b``    ``c = a - (b+c);  ``// (c = 60 – (10 + 30) = 20)` `    ``// After this, a has value of c``    ``a = a - (b+c);   ``//(a = 60 – (10 + 20) = 30)``}` `// Driver code``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `a = 10, b = 20, c = 30;` `    ``cout << ``"Before swapping a = "` `<< a << ``", b = "``         ``<< b << ``", c = "` `<< c << endl;` `    ``swapThree(a, b, c);` `    ``cout << ``"After swapping a = "` `<< a << ``", b = "``         ``<< b << ``", c = "` `<< c << endl;` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java program to swap three variables``// without using temporary variable.``class` `GFG``{``    ``static` `int` `a, b, c;` `    ``// Assign c's value to a, a's value``    ``// to b and b's value to c.``    ``static` `void` `swapThree()``    ``{``            ` `        ``// Store sum of all in a``        ``// (a = 60)``        ``a = a + b + c;``    ` `        ``// After this, b has value of a``        ``// (b = 60 - (20 + 30) = 10)``        ``b = a - (b + c);``    ` `        ``// After this, c has value of b``        ``// (c = 60 - (10 + 30) = 20)``        ``c = a - (b + c);``    ` `        ``// After this, a has value of c``        ``// (a = 60 - (10 + 20) = 30)``        ``a = a - (b + c);``    ``}` `    ``// Driver Code``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String []args)``    ``{``        ``a = ``10``; b = ``20``; c = ``30``;``        ``System.out.println(``"Before swapping a = "` `+``                                 ``a + ``", b = "` `+ b +``                                     ``", c = "` `+ c);``                            ` `        ``// Calling Function``        ``swapThree();` `        ``System.out.println(``"After swapping a = "` `+``                                ``a + ``", b = "` `+ b +``                                    ``", c = "` `+ c);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992`

## Python3

 `# python 3 program to swap three variables``# without using temporary variable.` `# Assign c's value to a, a's value to b and``# b's value to c.``def` `swapThree(a, b, c):``    ``# Store sum of all in a``    ``a ``=` `a ``+` `b ``+` `c ``# (a = 60)` `    ``# After this, b has value of a``    ``b ``=` `a ``-` `(b``+``c) ``# (b = 60 – (20+30) =10)` `    ``# After this, c has value of b``    ``c ``=` `a ``-` `(b``+``c) ``# (c = 60 – (10 + 30) = 20)` `    ``# After this, a has value of c``    ``a ``=` `a ``-` `(b``+``c) ``#(a = 60 – (10 + 20) = 30)``    ` `    ``print``(``"After swapping a ="``,a,``", b ="``,b,``", c ="``,c)` `# Driver code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``a ``=` `10``    ``b ``=` `20``    ``c ``=` `30` `    ``print``(``"Before swapping a ="``,a,``", b ="``,b,``", c ="``,c)` `    ``swapThree(a, b, c)``    ` `# This code is contributed by``# Surendra_Gangwar`

## C#

 `// C# program to swap three variables``// without using temporary variable.``using` `System;` `class` `GFG``{` `    ``// Assign c's value to a, a's value``    ``// to b and b's value to c.``    ``static` `void` `swapThree(``ref` `int` `a,``                        ``ref` `int` `b,``                        ``ref` `int` `c)``    ``{``    ``// Store sum of all in a``    ``// (a = 60)``        ``a = a + b + c;` `    ``// After this, b has value of a``    ``// (b = 60 – (20 + 30) = 10)``        ``b = a - (b + c);` `    ``// After this, c has value of b``    ``// (c = 60 – (10 + 30) = 20)``        ``c = a - (b + c);` `    ``// After this, a has value of c``    ``// (a = 60 – (10 + 20) = 30)``        ``a = a - (b + c);``    ``}` `    ``// Driver Code``    ``static` `void` `Main(String []args)``    ``{``        ` `        ``int` `a = 10, b = 20, c = 30;``        ``Console.WriteLine(``"Before swapping a = "` `+``                                ``a + ``", b = "` `+ b +``                                    ``", c = "` `+ c);``                            ` `        ``// Calling Function``        ``swapThree(``ref` `a, ``ref` `b,``ref` `c);` `        ``Console.Write(``"After swapping a = "` `+``                           ``a + ``", b = "` `+ b +``                               ``", c = "` `+ c);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by Sam007.`

## PHP

 ``

## Javascript

 ``

Output :

```Before swapping a = 10, b = 20, c = 30
After swapping a = 30, b = 10, c = 20```

Thanks to Mazhar MIK for suggesting this method.
Method 2 (Using Bitwise XOR)
The bitwise XOR operator can be used to swap three variables. The idea is similar to method 1. We first store XOR of all numbers in ‘a’. Then we get individual numbers by doing XOR of this with other two numbers.

## C++

 `// C++ program to swap three variables``// without using temporary variable``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `// Assign c's value to a, a's value to b and``// b's value to c.``void` `swapThree(``int` `&a, ``int` `&b, ``int` `&c)``{``    ``// Store XOR of all in a``    ``a = a ^ b ^ c;` `    ``// After this, b has value of a``    ``b = a ^ b ^ c;` `    ``// After this, c has value of b``    ``c = a ^ b ^ c;` `    ``// After this, a has value of c``    ``a = a ^ b ^ c;``}` `// Driver code``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `a = 10, b = 20, c = 30;` `    ``cout << ``"Before swapping a = "` `<< a << ``", b = "``         ``<< b << ``", c = "` `<< c << endl;` `    ``swapThree(a, b, c);` `    ``cout << ``"After swapping a = "` `<< a << ``", b = "``         ``<< b << ``", c = "` `<< c << endl;` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java program to swap three variables``// without using temporary variable.``class` `GFG``{``    ``static` `int` `a, b, c;` `    ``// Assign c's value to a, a's value``    ``// to b and b's value to c.``    ``static` `void` `swapThree()``    ``{``        ``// Store XOR of all in a``        ``a = a ^ b ^ c;` `        ``// After this, b has value of a``        ``b = a ^ b ^ c;` `        ``// After this, c has value of b``        ``c = a ^ b ^ c;` `        ``// After this, a has value of c``        ``a = a ^ b ^ c;``    ``}` `    ``// Driver Code``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``a = ``10``;``        ``b = ``20``;``        ``c = ``30``;``        ``System.out.println(``"Before swapping a = "` `+ a +``                           ``", b = "` `+ b + ``",c = "` `+ c);` `        ``// Calling Function``        ``swapThree();``        ``System.out.println(``"After swapping a = "` `+ a +``                           ``", b = "` `+ b + ``", c = "` `+ c);``    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji`

## Python3

 `# Python program to swap three variables``# without using temporary variable` `# Assign c's value to a, a's value to b and``# b's value to c.``def` `swapThree(a, b, c) :` `    ``# Store XOR of all in a``    ``a[``0``] ``=` `a[``0``] ^ b[``0``] ^ c[``0``]` `    ``# After this, b has value of a``    ``b[``0``] ``=` `a[``0``] ^ b[``0``] ^ c[``0``]` `    ``# After this, c has value of b``    ``c[``0``] ``=` `a[``0``] ^ b[``0``] ^ c[``0``]` `    ``# After this, a has value of c``    ``a[``0``] ``=` `a[``0``] ^ b[``0``] ^ c[``0``]` `# Driver code``a, b, c ``=` `[``10``], [``20``], [``30``]` `print``(``"Before swapping a = "``, a[``0``],``    ``", b = "``, b[``0``], ``", c = "``, c[``0``])` `swapThree(a, b, c)` `print``(``"After swapping a = "``, a[``0``],``   ``", b = "``, b[``0``], ``", c = "``, c[``0``])` `# This code is contributed by SHUBHAMSINGH10`

## C#

 `// C# program to swap three variables``// without using temporary variable.``using` `System;` `class` `GFG``{``    ` `    ``// Assign c's value to a, a's value``    ``// to b and b's value to c.``    ``static` `void` `swapThree(``ref` `int` `a,``                          ``ref` `int` `b,``                          ``ref` `int` `c)``    ``{``    ``// Store XOR of all in a``        ``a = a ^ b ^ c;` `    ``// After this, b has value of a``        ``b = a ^ b ^ c;` `    ``// After this, c has value of b``        ``c = a ^ b ^ c;` `    ``// After this, a has value of c``        ``a = a ^ b ^ c;``    ``}` `    ``// Driver Code``    ``static` `void` `Main(String []args)``    ``{``        ` `    ``int` `a = 10, b = 20, c = 30;``        ``Console.WriteLine( ``"Before swapping a = "` `+``                            ``a +``", b = "` `+ b +``                               ``",c = "` `+ c);``                             ` `        ` `        ``// Calling Function``        ``swapThree(``ref` `a, ``ref` `b,``ref` `c);` `        ` `        ``Console.Write(``"After swapping a = "` `+``                       ``a +``", b = "` `+ b +``                       ``", c = "` `+ c);``                       ` `    ``}``}` `// This code is contributed by Sam007.`

## PHP

 ``

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

```Before swapping a = 10, b = 20, c = 30
After swapping a = 30, b = 10, c = 20```

The method 1 causes overflow for large values of a, b and c, while method 2 doesn’t.
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