The organization gives official permission to access something or do something with the network or application. For example, suppose an organization XYZ gives you permission to access the admin panel and to make changes for the organization.
It ensures and confirms the user identity to enter the system. For example, to enter the examination hall you need to show your identity card. In the same way, you need to confirm your identity by logging in with your credentials to enter the system.
To identify the risks or threats in the network or web application. If any vulnerability is found, it will enable the hacker to access the data and manipulate it. So, Vulnerability Assessment can help organizations to make their web applications and networks more secure when tested by white hat hackers.
Vulnerability Assessment includes Penetration testing or pen testing, i.e., identifying vulnerabilities in a network or applications by testing it. The main goal of pen testing is to find vulnerable loopholes in applications and patch them to avoid black hat hackers to exploit them. So, by pen testing, you can secure a web application and network and therefore it is one of the most important terms in ethical hacking.