Solidity – Variables
A Variable is basically a placeholder for the data which can be manipulated at runtime. Variables allow users to retrieve and change the stored information.
Rules For Naming Variables
1. A variable name should not match with reserved keywords.
2. Variable names must start with a letter or an underscore (_), and may contain letters from “a to z” or “A to Z” or digits from “0 to 9” and characters also.
Geeks123, geeks, _123geeks are valid variable names 123geeks, $Geeks, 12_geeks are invalid variable names
3. The name of variables are case sensitive i.e.
Geeks123 and geeks123 are different variables
Declaration of Variables
In Solidity declaration of variables is a little bit different, to declare a variable the user has to specify the data type first followed by access modifier.
<type> <access modifier> <variable name> ;
int public int_var;
Types of Variables
Solidity is a statically typed language i.e. each declared variable always has a default value based on its data type, which means there is no concept of ‘null’ or ‘undefined’. Solidity supports three types of variables:
1. State Variables: Values of these variables are permanently stored in the contract storage. Each function has its own scope, and state variables should always be defined outside of that scope.
Example: In the below example. the contract Solidity_var_Test initializes the values of an unsigned integer state variable using a constructor.
2. Local Variable: Values of these variables are present till the function executes and it cannot be accessed outside that function. This type of variable is usually used to store temporary values.
Example: In the below example, the contract Solidity_var_Test defines a function to declare and initialize the local variables and return the sum of the two local variables.
3. Global Variables: These are some special variables that can be used globally and give information about the transactions and blockChain properties. Some of the global variables are listed below :
Variable Return value blockhash(uint blockNumber) returns (bytes32) Hash of a given block, works for only 256 most recent transactions excluding current blocks block.coinbase (address payable) Address of current blocks miner block.difficulty (uint) The difficulty of the current block block.gaslimit (uint) Gaslimit of the current block block.number (uint) Block number of the current block block.timestamp (uint) The timestamp of the current block as seconds since Unix epoch gasleft() returns (uint256) Amount of gas left msg.data (bytes calldata) Complete call data of block msg.sender (address payable) The sender of message i.e. current caller msg.sig (bytes4) First four bytes of call data i.e. function identifier msg.value (uint) Amount of Wei sent with a message now (uint) The timestamp of the current block gasleft() returns (uint256) Amount of gas left tx.gasprice (uint) Price of gas for the transaction tx.origin (address payable) Transaction sender
Example: In the below example, the contact Test uses the msg.sender variable to access the address of the person deploying the contract.