Solidity – Operators

In any programming language, operators play a vital role i.e. they create a foundation for the programming. Similarly, the functionality of Solidity is also incomplete without the use of operators. Operators allow users to perform different operations on operands. Solidity supports the following types of operators based upon their functionality.

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Relational Operators
  3. Logical Operators
  4. Bitwise Operators
  5. Assignment operators
  6. Conditional Operator

Arithmetic Operators

These operators are used to perform arithmetic or mathematical operations. Solidity supports the following arithmetic operators : 

Operator Denotation Description
Addition + Used to add two operands
Subtraction Used to subtract the second operand from first
Multiplication * Used to multiply both operands
Division / Used to divide numerator by denominator
Modulus % Gives the remainder after integer division
Increment ++ Increases the integer value by one
Decrement Decreases the integer value by one

Example: In the below example, the contract SolidityTest demonstrates the above mentioned different types of arithmetic operators.

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// Solidity contract to demonstrate
// Arithematic Operator
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
  
// Creating a contract
contract SolidityTest {
  
    // Initializing variables
    uint16 public a = 20;
    uint16 public b = 10;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with sum
    uint public sum = a + b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with the difference
    uint public diff = a - b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with product
    uint public mul = a * b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with quotient
    uint public div = a / b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with modulus
    uint public mod = a % b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // decrement value
    uint public dec = --b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with increment value
    uint public inc = ++a;
      
}

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Output : 
 



Arithematic Operator

Relational Operators

These operators are used to compare two values. Solidity supports the following relational operators : 

Operator Denotation Description
Equal == Checks if two values are equal or not, returns true if equals and vice-versa
Not Equal != Checks if two values are equal or not, returns true if not equals and vice-versa
Greater than > Checks if left value is greater then right or not, returns true if greater and vice-versa
Less than < Checks if left value is less then right or not, returns true if less and vice-versa
Greater than or Equal to >= Checks if left value is greater and equal then right or not, returns true if greater and equal and vice-versa
Less than or Equal to <= Checks if left value is less then right or not, returns true if less and equals and vice-versa

Example: In the below example, the contract SolidityTest demonstrates the above mentioned different types of relational operators.

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// Solidity program to demonstrate 
// Relational Operator
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
  
// Creating a contract
contract SolidityTest {
  
    // Declaring variables
    uint16 public a = 20;
    uint16 public b = 10;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with bool equal result
    bool public eq = a == b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with bool not equal result
    bool public noteq = a != b;
     
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with bool greater than result
    bool public gtr = a > b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with bool less than result
    bool public les = a < b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // with bool greater than equal to result
    bool public gtreq = a >= b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // bool less than equal to result
    bool public leseq = a <= b;
      
}

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Output : 
 

Relational Operator

Logical Operators

These operators are used to combine two or more conditions. Solidity supports the following arithmetic operators : 

Operator Denotation Description
Logical AND && Returns true if both conditions are true and false if one or both conditions are false
Logical OR || Returns true if one or both conditions are true and false when both are false
Logical NOT ! Returns true if the condition is not satisfied else false

Example: In the below example, the contract logicalOperator demonstrates the above mentioned different types of logical operators.



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// Solidity program to demonstrate
// Logical Operators
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
  
// Creating a contract
contract logicalOperator{
  
     // Defining function to demonstrate 
     // Logical operator
     function Logic(
       bool a, bool b) public view returns(
       bool, bool, bool){
         
       // Logical AND operator  
       bool and = a&&b;
         
       // Logical OR operator  
       bool or = a||b;
         
       // Logical NOT operator
       bool not = !a;
       return (and, or, not);
 }
}

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Output : 
 

Logical Operator

Bitwise Operators

These operators work at a bit level used to perform bit-level operations. Solidity supports the following arithmetic operators :

Operator Denotation Description
Bitwise AND & Performs boolean AND operation on each bit of integer argument
BitWise OR | Performs boolean OR operation on each bit of integer argument
Bitwise XOR ^ Performs boolean exclusive OR operation on each bit of integer argument
Bitwise Not ~ Performs boolean NOT operation on each bit of integer argument 
Left Shift << Moves all bits of the first operand to the left by the number of places specified by the second operand
Right Shift >> Moves all bits of the first operand to the right by the number of places specified by the second operand

Example: In the below example, the contract SolidityTest demonstrates the above mentioned different types of bitwise operators.

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// Solidity program to demonstrate 
// Bitwise Operator
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
  
// Creating a contract
contract SolidityTest {
  
    // Declaring variables
    uint16 public a = 20;
    uint16 public b = 10;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // to '&' value
    uint16 public and = a & b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // to '|' value
    uint16 public or = a | b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // to '^' value
    uint16 public xor = a ^ b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // to '<<' value
    uint16 public leftshift = a << b;
  
    // Initializing a variable 
    // to '>>' value
    uint16 public rightshift = a >> b;
    
    // Initializing a variable 
    // to '~' value
    uint16 public not = ~a ;
      
}

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Output : 

Bitwise Operators

Assignment Operator

These operators are for the assignment of value to a variable. The operand at the left side is variable while operand at the right side is value. Solidity supports the following arithmetic operators : 

Operator Denotation Description
Simple Assignment  = Simply assigns the value at the right side to the operand at the left side
Add Assignment += Adds operand at the right side to operand at the left side and assigns the value to left operand
Subtract Assignment -= Subtracts operand at the right side from operand at the left side and assigns the value to left operand
Multiply Assignment *= Multiplies both the operands and assign the value to left operand
Divide Assignment /= Divides operand at the left side by operand at the right side and assign the value to left operand
Modulus Assignment %= Divides operand at the left side by operand at the right side and assign the remainder to left operand

Example: In the below example, the contract SolidityTest demonstrates the above mentioned different types of assignment operators.



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// Solidity program to demonstrate 
// Assignment Operator
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
  
// Creating a contract
contract SolidityTest {
  
        // Declaring variables
        uint16 public assignment = 20;
        uint public assignment_add = 50;
        uint public assign_sub = 50;
        uint public assign_mul = 10;
        uint public assign_div = 50;
        uint public assign_mod = 32;
      
        // Defining function to 
        // demonstrate Assignment Operator
        function getResult() public{
           assignment_add += 10;
           assign_sub -= 20;
           assign_mul *= 10;
           assign_div /= 10;
           assign_mod %= 20;
           return ;
        }
}

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Output : 

Assignment Operator

Conditional Operators

It is a ternary operator that evaluates the expression first then checks the condition for return values corresponding to true or false. 

Syntax:

if condition true ? then A: else B

Example: In the below example, the contract SolidityTest demonstrates the conditional operator.

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// Solidity program to demonstrate
// Conditional Operator
pragma solidity ^0.5.0;
  
// Creating a contract
contract SolidityTest{
  
     // Defining function to demonstrate 
     // conditional operator
     function sub(
       uint a, uint b) public view returns(
       uint){
      uint result = (a > b? a-b : b-a);
      return result;
 }
}

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Output : 
 

Conditional Operator

 




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