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Software Processes in Software Engineering

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 22 Nov, 2021

Software is the set of instructions in the form of programs to govern the computer system and to process the hardware components. To produce a software product the set of activities is used. This set is called a software process. 
 

Software Development : In this process, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing is done.

Components of Software : 
There are three components of the software: These are : Program, Documentation, and Operating Procedures.

  1. Program –
    A computer program is a list of instructions that tell a computer what to do. 
     
  2. Documentation – 
    Source information about the product contained in design documents, detailed code comments, etc. 
     
  3. Operating Procedures –
    Set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out complex routine operations. 

There are four basic key process activities: 

  1. Software Specifications – 
    In this process, detailed description of a software system to be developed with its functional and non-functional requirements. 
     
  2. Software Development –
    In this process, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing is done. 
     
  3. Software Validation –
    In this process, evaluation software product is done to ensure that the software meets the business requirements as well as the end users needs. 
     
  4. Software Evolution – 
    It is a process of developing software initially, then timely updating it for various reasons. 

Software Crisis : 

  1. Size and Cost –
    Day to day growing complexity and expectation out of software. Software are more expensive and more complex. 
     
  2. Quality –
    Software products must have good quality. 
     
  3. Delayed Delivery –
    Software takes longer than the estimated time to develop, which in turn leads to cost shooting up. 
     

Software Process Model: 
A software process model is an abstraction of the actual process, which is being described. It can also be defined as a simplified representation of a software process. Each model represents a process from a specific perspective. Basic software process models on which different type of software process models can be implemented: 

  1. A workflow Model –
    It is the sequential series of tasks and decisions that make up a business process. 
     
  2. The Waterfall Model – 
    It is a sequential design process in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards. Phases in waterfall model: 
    • (i) Requirements Specification
    • (ii) Software Design
    • (iii) Implementation
    • (iv) Testing
       
  3. Dataflow Model –
    It is diagrammatic representation of the flow and exchange of information within a system. 
     
  4. Evolutionary Development Model – 
    Following activities are considered in this method: 
    • (i) Specification
    • (ii) Development
    • (iii) Validation
       
  5. Role / Action Model – 
    Roles of the people involved in the software process and the activities. 
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