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Rust – Array
  • Last Updated : 31 Mar, 2021

AN Array in Rust programming is a fixed-sized collection of elements denoted by [T; N] where is T is the element type and N is the compile-time constant size of the array.

We can create an array in 2 different ways:

  1. Simply a list with each element [a, b, c].
  2. Repeat expression [N, X].  This will create an array with N copies of X.

[X,0] it is allowed but can cause some hectic problems so if you are using this type of expression be mindful of side effects. Array size from 0-32 implements the default trait if allowed by its type. Trait implementations are up to 32 sizes. An array is not iterateable itself.

Syntax:

ArrayType : [ Type ; Expression ]

An array is written as:



let array: [i32; 3] = [4, 5, 6];

Features of an Array:

The features of an array are listed below :

  • Memory blocks in the array are in sequential order.
  • Once an array is created it cannot be resized which means the array is static.
  • The array element is represented by the memory block
  • To identify array elements we use a unique integer known as a subscript.
  • Putting values in the array element is known as array initialization.
  • Values in the array element can be updated or modified but cannot be deleted.

Declaring and Initializing Arrays:

The below-given surtaxes can be used to declare and initialize an array in Rust:

Syntax1: let variable_name = [value_1,value_2,value_3];

Syntax2: let variable_name:[dataType;array_size] = [value_1,value_2,value_3];

Syntax3: let variable_name:[dataType;array_size] = [default_value_for_elements,array_size];

The value of the datatype is getting from the data type of the first variable of the array.

Printing elements of a Simple Array

 To print all values in the array use the {:?} syntax of the println!() function. To compute the size of the array we can use the len() function.

Example 1: Printing Elements in the array

Rust




#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let mut array: [i32; 5] = [0; 5];
  
array[1] = 1;
array[2] = 2;
array[3] = 3;
array[4] = 4;
assert_eq!([1, 2 , 3 ,4], &array[1..]);
  
// This loop prints: 0 1 2 3 4
for x in &array {
   print!("{} ", x);
}
}

Output: 

0 1 2 3 4

Example 2: Printing Elements in the array



Rust




fn main(){
  let arr:[i32;5] = [1,2,3,4,5];
  println!("array is {:?}",arr);
  println!("array size is :{}",arr.len());
}

Output:

array is [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
array size is :5

Working with Arrays without Data Type:

The program below declares an array of 5 elements. Here we are not explicitly defining the data type during variable declaration. So, the array will be of type integer. To compute the size of the array we can use the len() function.

Rust




fn main(){
  let arr = [1,2,3,4,5];
  println!("array is {:?}",arr);
  println!("array size is :{}",arr.len());
}

Output:

array is [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
array size is :5

Array Default values:

Let us create an array and initialize all the values with the default value 0.

Rust




fn main() {
  let gfg_array:[i32;5] = [0;5];
  println!("array is {:?}",gfg_array);
  println!("array size is :{}",gfg_array.len());
}

Output:

array is [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
array size is :5

Working with loops on Array:

The following example iterates through an array and prints the indexes and their corresponding values. The loop retrieves values from index 0 to 4 (index of the last array element).

In this example, an array is iterated by a loop and prints the index and the value.  Loop retrieves the value from 0 to 5



Rust




fn main(){
  let gfg_array:[i32;5] = [1,2,3,4,5];
  println!("array is {:?}",gfg_array);
  println!("array size is :{}",gfg_array.len());
  
  for index in 0..5 {
     println!("index is: {} & value is : {}",index,gfg_array[index]);
  }
}

Output:

array is [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
array size is :5
index is: 0 & value is : 1
index is: 1 & value is : 2
index is: 2 & value is : 3
index is: 3 & value is : 4
index is: 4 & value is : 5

Using the iter() function on Arrays:

The iter() function fetches values of all elements in an array.

Rust




fn main(){
  
let arr:[i32;5] = [1,2,3,4,5];
  println!("array is {:?}",arr);
  println!("array size is :{}",arr.len());
  
  for val in arr.iter(){
     println!("value is :{}",val);
  }
}

Output:

array is [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
array size is :5
index is: 0 & value is : 1
index is: 1 & value is : 2
index is: 2 & value is : 3
index is: 3 & value is : 4
index is: 4 & value is : 5

Concept of Mutable Array:

To declare the mutable array we use “mut” key. Mutable arrays are those arrays whose elements can be altered. See the example below for a better understanding.

Rust




fn main(){
  let mut arr:[i32;5] = [1,2,3,4,5];
  arr[1] = 0;
  println!("{:?}",arr);
}

Output:

[1, 0, 3, 4, 5]

We have updated the value of the array at index number “1” and print the value.

Passing Arrays as Parameters to Functions:

We can pass an array as a parameter either by a call by value or call by reference to a function.

Example 1: Pass by value

Rust




fn main() {
  let gfg_array = [1,2,3,4];
  change_array(gfg_array);
  
  print!("Original array {:?}",gfg_array);
}
fn change_array(mut gfg_array:[i32;4]){
  for i in 0..4 {
     gfg_array[i] = 0;
  }
  println!("Changed array {:?}",gfg_array);
}

Output:

Changed array [0, 0, 0, 0]
Original array [1, 2, 3, 4]

Example 2: Pass by reference

Rust




#![allow(unused)]
  
fn main() {
  let mut gfg_array = [1,2,3,4,5];
  change_array(&mut gfg_array);
  print!("Original array {:?}",gfg_array);
}
fn change_array(gfg_array:&mut [i32;5]){
  for i in 0..5 {
     gfg_array[i] = 0;
  }
  println!("Changed array {:?}",gfg_array);
}

Output:

Changed array [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
Original array [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]



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