Random Numbers in Python

Python defines a set of functions that are used to generate or manipulate random numbers. This particular type of functions are used in a lot of games, lotteries or any application requiring random number generation.

Randon Number Operations :

1. choice() :- This function is used to generate 1 random number from a container.



2. randrange(beg, end, step) :- This function is also used to generate random number but within a range specified in its arguments. This function takes 3 arguments, beginning number (included in generation), last number (excluded in generation) and step ( to skip numbers in range while selecting).

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# Python code to demonstrate the working of
# choice() and randrange()
   
# importing "random" for random operations
import random
  
# using choice() to generate a random number from a 
# given list of numbers.
print ("A random number from list is : ",end="")
print (random.choice([1, 4, 8, 10, 3]))
  
# using randrange() to generate in range from 20
# to 50. The last parameter 3 is step size to skip
# three numbers when selecting.
print ("A random number from range is : ",end="")
print (random.randrange(20, 50, 3))

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Output:

A random number from list is : 4
A random number from range is : 41

3. random() :- This number is used to generate a float random number less than 1 and greater or equal to 0.

4. seed() :- This function maps a particular random number with the seed argument mentioned. All random numbers called after the seeded value returns the mapped number.

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# Python code to demonstrate the working of
# random() and seed()
   
# importing "random" for random operations
import random
  
# using random() to generate a random number
# between 0 and 1
print ("A random number between 0 and 1 is : ", end="")
print (random.random())
  
# using seed() to seed a random number
random.seed(5)
  
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 5 is : ", end="")
print (random.random())
  
# using seed() to seed different random number
random.seed(7)
  
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 7 is : ", end="")
print (random.random())
  
# using seed() to seed to 5 again
random.seed(5)
  
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 5 is : ",end="")
print (random.random())
  
# using seed() to seed to 7 again 
random.seed(7)
  
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 7 is : ",end="")
print (random.random())

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Output:

A random number between 0 and 1 is : 0.510721762520941
The mapped random number with 5 is : 0.6229016948897019
The mapped random number with 7 is : 0.32383276483316237
The mapped random number with 5 is : 0.6229016948897019
The mapped random number with 7 is : 0.32383276483316237

5. shuffle() :- This function is used to shuffle the entire list to randomly arrange them.

6. uniform(a, b) :- This function is used to generate a floating point random number between the numbers mentioned in its arguments. It takes two arguments, lower limit(included in generation) and upper limit(not included in generation).

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# Python code to demonstrate the working of
# shuffle() and uniform()
   
# importing "random" for random operations
import random
  
# Initializing list 
li = [1, 4, 5, 10, 2]
  
# Printing list before shuffling
print ("The list before shuffling is : ", end="")
for i in range(0, len(li)):
    print (li[i], end=" ")
print("\r")
  
# using shuffle() to shuffle the list
random.shuffle(li)
  
# Printing list after shuffling
print ("The list after shuffling is : ", end="")
for i in range(0, len(li)):
    print (li[i], end=" ")
print("\r")
  
# using uniform() to generate random floating number in range
# prints number between 5 and 10
print ("The random floating point number between 5 and 10 is : ",end="")
print (random.uniform(5,10))

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Output:

The list before shuffling is : 1 4 5 10 2 
The list after shuffling is : 2 1 4 5 10 
The random floating point number between 5 and 10 is : 5.183697823553464

This article is contributed by Manjeet Singh. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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