# Python program to design a biased dice throw function

• Last Updated : 13 Jan, 2021

In this article, the task is to write a Python program to generate an unbiased dice throw and give output accordingly. To do, so we can use various methods present in the Python’s random library.

Approaches:

• Using random.choice() method
• Using random.randrange() method
• Using random.randint() method
• Using random.random() method
• Using random.choices() method

#### Method 1: Using random.choice()

Choice() is an inbuilt function in Python programming language that returns a random item from a list, tuple, or string. This method is designed for the specific purpose of getting a random number from the container and hence is the most common method to achieve this task of getting a random number from a list.

Syntax: random.choice(sequence)

Parameters:

• Sequence is a mandatory parameter that can be a list, tuple, or string.

Returns: The choice() returns a random item.

Now, as we know that dice has numbers from the range 1-6 inclusive and we want a biased result as output so we will give [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6] as the sequence in the function and function will give a biased dice throw as output because the frequency of the numbers is not same. Below are the implementations based on the above explanation:

## Python3

 `# Python program to design a biased dice throw ``# function`` ` `# Importing random library``import` `random`` ` `# Function to give a biased dice throw``def` `dice_throw():``     ` `    ``# Declaring the sequence``    ``sequence ``=` `[``1``, ``1``, ``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``]``     ` `    ``# Printing the random result``    ``print``(random.choice(sequence))`` ` `# Driver Code``# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`

Output:

```6
3
6```

#### Method 2: Using random.randrange()

This method is used to generate a random number in a range, for lists, we can specify the range to be 0 to its length, and get the index, and then corresponding value. This also gives the option of getting even placed elements or elements at the index of a certain multiple.

Syntax : random.randrange(start(opt), stop,step(opt))

Parameters :

• start(opt) : Number consideration for generation starts from this, default value is 0. This parameter is optional.
• stop : Numbers less than this are generated. This parameter is mandatory.
• step(opt) : Step point of range, this won’t be included. This is optional. Default value is 1.

Return Value : This function generated the numbers in the sequence start-stop skipping step.

Now, as we know that dice has numbers from the range 1-6 inclusive, and we want a biased result as output, so we will give [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6] as the sequence in the function and then use randrange to find a random index and thus function will give a biased dice throw as output. Below are the implementations based on the above explanation:

## Python3

 `# Python program to design a biased dice throw ``# function`` ` `# Importing random library``import` `random`` ` `# Function to give a biased dice throw``def` `dice_throw():``     ` `    ``# Declaring the sequence``    ``sequence ``=` `[``1``, ``1``, ``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``]``     ` `    ``# using random.randrange() to  ``    ``# get a random index number  ``    ``rand_idx ``=` `random.randrange(``len``(sequence))`` ` `    ``# Printing the random result``    ``print``(sequence[rand_idx])`` ` `# Driver Code``# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`

Output:

```6
3
3```

#### Method 3: Using random.randint()

Yet another method to generate the random number, also can be used to generate any number in a range, and then using that number index, we can find the value at the corresponding index, just like the above-mentioned technique. But it differs by the fact that it required 2 mandatory arguments for range.

Syntax : randint(start, end)

Parameters :

• (start, end) : Both of them must be integer type values.

Returns : A random integer in range [start, end] including the end points.

Now, as we know that dice has numbers from the range 1-6 inclusive, and we want a biased result as output, so we will give [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6] as the sequence in the function and then use randint to find a random index and thus function will give a biased dice throw as output. Below are the implementations based on the above explanation:

## Python3

 `# Python program to design a biased dice throw ``# function`` ` `# Importing random library``import` `random`` ` `# Function to give a biased dice throw``def` `dice_throw():``     ` `    ``# Declaring the sequence``    ``sequence ``=` `[``1``, ``1``, ``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``]``     ` `    ``# using random.randint() to  ``    ``# get a random index number  ``    ``rand_idx ``=` `random.randint(``0``, ``len``(sequence)``-``1``)`` ` `    ``# Printing the random result``    ``print``(sequence[rand_idx])`` ` `# Driver Code``# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`

Output:

```5
2
4```

#### Method 4: Using random.random()

This method generates the floating-point numbers in the range of 0 to 1. We can also get the index value of list using this function by multiplying the result and then typecasting to int to get integer index and then corresponding list value. Then we will use that index value to print a random number from the list.

Syntax : random.random()

Parameters : This method does not accept any parameter.

Returns : This method returns a random floating number between 0 and 1.

Now, as we know that dice has numbers from the range 1-6 inclusive, and we want a biased result as output, so we will give [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6] as the sequence in the function and then use random to find a random index and thus function will give a biased dice throw as output. Below are the implementations based on the above explanation:

## Python3

 `# Python program to design a biased dice throw ``# function`` ` `# Importing random library``import` `random`` ` `# Function to give a biased dice throw``def` `dice_throw():``     ` `    ``# Declaring the sequence``    ``sequence ``=` `[``1``, ``1``, ``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``, ``6``]``     ` `    ``# using random.random() to  ``    ``# get a random number  ``    ``rand_idx ``=` `int``(random.random() ``*` `len``(sequence)) `` ` `    ``# Printing the random result``    ``print``(sequence[rand_idx])`` ` `# Driver Code``# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`

Output:

```6
2
6```

#### Method 5: Using random.choices()

The choices() method returns multiple random elements from the list with replacement. You can weigh the possibility of each result with the weights parameter or the cum_weights parameter. The elements can be a string, a range, a list, a tuple or any other kind of sequence.

Syntax : random.choices(sequence, weights=None, cum_weights=None, k=1)

Parameters :

• sequence: It is a mandatory parameter that can be a list, tuple, or string.
• weights: It is an optional parameter which is used to weigh the possibility for each value.
• cum_weights: It is an optional parameter which is used to weigh the possibility for each value but in this the possibility is accumulated
• k: It is an optional parameter that is used to define the length of the returned list.

Now, as we know that dice has numbers from the range 1-6 inclusive, so we will give [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] as a sequence, and then we will set weights of each element of the list. Then we will print the output. Below are the implementations based on the above explanation:

## Python3

 `# Python program to design a biased dice throw ``# function`` ` `# Importing random library``import` `random`` ` `# Function to give a biased dice throw``def` `dice_throw():``     ` `    ``# Declaring the sequence``    ``sequence ``=` `[``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``]``     ` `    ``# using random.choices() to  ``    ``# get a random choice``    ``rand_choice ``=` `random.choices(sequence, weights ``=` `[``1``, ``2``, ``3``, ``4``, ``5``, ``6``], k ``=` `1``)`` ` `    ``# Printing the random result``    ``print``(``*``rand_choice)`` ` `# Driver Code``# Calling the function``dice_throw()``1``6``3`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`` ` `# Calling the function``dice_throw()`

Output:

```1
6
3```

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