Python | os.path.expanduser() method

OS module in Python provides functions for interacting with the operating system. OS comes under Python’s standard utility modules. This module provides a portable way of using operating system dependent functionality. os.path module is sub module of OS module in Python used for common pathname manipulation.

os.path.expanduser() method in Python is used to expand an initial path component ~( tilde symbol) or ~user in the given path to user’s home directory.

On Unix platforms, an initial ~ is replaced by the value of HOME environment variable, if it is set. Otherwise, os.path.expanduser() method search for user’s home directory in password directory using an in-built module pwd. Path containing an initial ~user component is looked up directly in the password directory.



On Windows platform, an initial ~ is replaced by the value of HOME and USERPROFILE environment variable, if it is set. Otherwise, HOMEPATH and HOMEDRIVE environment variable will be used. While Path containing an initial ~user component is handled by replacing the last directory component with ~user from the path derived above.

Syntax: os.path.expanduser(path)

Parameter:
path: A path-like object representing a file system path. A path-like object is either a string or bytes object representing a path.

Return Type: This method returns a string value which represents the path after expanding an initial path component ~ or ~user in the given path.

Code #1: Use of os.path.expanduser() method (On Unix)

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# Python program to explain os.path.expanduser() method 
    
# importing os.path module 
import os.path
  
  
# Path
path = "~/file.txt"
  
# Expand an intial ~ component
# in the given path
# using os.path.expanduser() method
full_path = os.path.expanduser(path)
  
# print the path after
# expanding the intial ~ component
# in the given path
print(full_path)
  
  
# Change the value of
# HOME environment variable
os.environ["HOME"] = "/home / GeeksForGeeks"
  
  
# Now, Expand the intial ~ component
# in the same path
# using os.path.expanduser() method
full_path = os.path.expanduser(path)
  
# print the path after
# expanding intial ~ component
# in the given path
print(full_path)
  
  
# While expansion, An initial
# ~user component is looked
# up directly in the password directory.
  
# Path having an initial
# ~user component
path = "~ihritik / file.txt"
  
# Expand the intial ~user
# component in the given path
# using os.path.expanduser() method
full_path = os.path.expanduser(path)
  
# print the path after
# expanding the intial ~user
# component in the given path
print(full_path)

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Output:

/home/ihritik/file.txt
/home/GeeksForGeeks/file.txt
/home/ihritik/file.txt

Code #2: Use of os.path.expanduser() method (On Windows)

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# Python program to explain os.path.expandvars() method 
     
# importing os.path module 
import os.path
   
# On Windows % name % expansions
# are supported in addition to
# $name and ${name}
   
# Path 1
path1 = R"% HOMEPATH %\Directory\file.txt"
   
# Path 2
path2 = R"C:\Users\$USERNAME\Directory\file.txt"
   
# Path 3
path3 = R"${TEMP}\file.txt"
   
# Expand the environment variables
# with their corresponding 
# value in the given paths  
exp_var1 = os.path.expandvars(path1)
exp_var2 = os.path.expandvars(path2)
exp_var3 = os.path.expandvars(path3)
   
# Print the given paths with
# environment variables expanded
print(exp_var1)
print(exp_var2)
print(exp_var3)
   
   
# In the above example 
# os.path.expandvars() method
# replaced the environment variables
# 'HOMEPATH', 'USERNAME' and 'TEMP'
# with their corresponding values

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Output:

\\Users\\Hritik\\\Directory\\file.txt
C:\\Users\\Hritik\\\Directory\\file.txt
C:\\Users\\Hritik\\AppData\\Local\\Temp\\file.txt

Code #3: 3: If environment variable does not exists

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# Python program to explain os.path.expandvars() method 
     
# importing os.path module 
import os.path
   
# If environment variable 
# is malformed or does not exists
# then the given path will be
# left unchanged
   
# Path
path = R"${MYHOME}/Directory / file.txt"
   
# Expand the environment variables
# with their corresponding 
# value in the given paths  
exp_var = os.path.expandvars(path)
   
# Print the given patha with
# environment variables expanded
print(exp_var)
   
   
# As 'MYHOME' environment variable
# does not exists so
# os.path.expandvars() method
# will return the given path
# unchanged

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Output:

${MYHOME}/Directory/file.txt

Reference: https://docs.python.org/3/library/os.path.html



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