Python bit functions on int (bit_length, to_bytes and from_bytes)

The int type implements the numbers.Integral abstract base class.

1. int.bit_length()
Returns the number of bits required to represent an integer in binary, excluding the sign and leading zeros.

Code to demonstrate

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num = 7
print(num.bit_length())
  
num = -7
print(num.bit_length())

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Output:

3
3

2. int.to_bytes(length, byteorder, *, signed=False)
Return an array of bytes representing an integer.

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# Returns byte representation of 1024 in a
# big endian machine.
print((1024).to_bytes(2, byteorder ='big'))

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Output:

b'\x04\x00'

3. int.from_bytes(bytes, byteorder, *, signed=False)
Returns the integer represented by the given array of bytes.

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# Returns integer value of '\x00\x10' in big endian machine.
print(int.from_bytes(b'\x00\x10', byteorder ='big'))

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Output:

16


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