# Print the nodes at odd levels of a tree

Given a binary tree, print nodes of odd level in any order. Root is considered at level 1.

```For example consider the following tree
1
/     \
2       3
/   \       \
4     5       6
/  \     /
7    8   9

Output  1 4 5 6```
Recommended Practice

Method 1 (Recursive): The idea is to pass initial level as odd and switch level flag in every recursive call. For every node, if odd flag is set, then print it.

Implementation:

## C++

 `// Recursive C++ program to print odd level nodes``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `struct` `Node {``    ``int` `data;``    ``Node* left, *right;``};` `void` `printOddNodes(Node *root, ``bool` `isOdd = ``true``)``{``    ``// If empty tree``    ``if` `(root == NULL)``      ``return``;` `    ``// If current node is of odd level``    ``if` `(isOdd)``       ``cout << root->data << ``" "` `;` `    ``// Recur for children with isOdd``    ``// switched.``    ``printOddNodes(root->left, !isOdd);``    ``printOddNodes(root->right, !isOdd);``}` `// Utility method to create a node``struct` `Node* newNode(``int` `data)``{``    ``struct` `Node* node = ``new` `Node;``    ``node->data = data;``    ``node->left = node->right = NULL;``    ``return` `(node);``}` `// Driver code``int` `main()``{``    ``struct` `Node* root = newNode(1);``    ``root->left = newNode(2);``    ``root->right = newNode(3);``    ``root->left->left = newNode(4);``    ``root->left->right = newNode(5);``    ``printOddNodes(root);` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Recursive Java program to print odd level nodes ``class` `GfG {` `static` `class` `Node { ``    ``int` `data; ``    ``Node left, right; ``}` `static` `void` `printOddNodes(Node root, ``boolean` `isOdd) ``{ ``    ``// If empty tree ``    ``if` `(root == ``null``) ``    ``return``; ` `    ``// If current node is of odd level ``    ``if` `(isOdd == ``true``) ``    ``System.out.print(root.data + ``" "``); ` `    ``// Recur for children with isOdd ``    ``// switched. ``    ``printOddNodes(root.left, !isOdd); ``    ``printOddNodes(root.right, !isOdd); ``} ` `// Utility method to create a node ``static` `Node newNode(``int` `data) ``{ ``    ``Node node = ``new` `Node(); ``    ``node.data = data; ``    ``node.left = ``null``;``    ``node.right = ``null``; ``    ``return` `(node); ``} ` `// Driver code ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ``{ ``    ``Node root = newNode(``1``); ``    ``root.left = newNode(``2``); ``    ``root.right = newNode(``3``); ``    ``root.left.left = newNode(``4``); ``    ``root.left.right = newNode(``5``); ``    ``printOddNodes(root, ``true``); ` `}``} `

## Python3

 `# Recursive Python3 program to print ``# odd level nodes ` `# Utility method to create a node ``class` `newNode:``    ``def` `__init__(``self``, data):``        ``self``.data ``=` `data ``        ``self``.left ``=` `self``.right ``=` `None` `def` `printOddNodes(root, isOdd ``=` `True``):``    ` `    ``# If empty tree ``    ``if` `(root ``=``=` `None``): ``        ``return` `    ``# If current node is of odd level ``    ``if` `(isOdd): ``        ``print``(root.data, end ``=` `" "``)` `    ``# Recur for children with isOdd ``    ``# switched. ``    ``printOddNodes(root.left, ``not` `isOdd) ``    ``printOddNodes(root.right, ``not` `isOdd)` `# Driver code ``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``root ``=` `newNode(``1``) ``    ``root.left ``=` `newNode(``2``) ``    ``root.right ``=` `newNode(``3``) ``    ``root.left.left ``=` `newNode(``4``) ``    ``root.left.right ``=` `newNode(``5``) ``    ``printOddNodes(root)``    ` `# This code is contributed by PranchalK`

## C#

 `using` `System;` `// Recursive C# program to print odd level nodes  ``public` `class` `GfG``{` `public` `class` `Node``{``    ``public` `int` `data;``    ``public` `Node left, right;``}` `public` `static` `void` `printOddNodes(Node root, ``bool` `isOdd)``{``    ``// If empty tree  ``    ``if` `(root == ``null``)``    ``{``    ``return``;``    ``}` `    ``// If current node is of odd level  ``    ``if` `(isOdd == ``true``)``    ``{``    ``Console.Write(root.data + ``" "``);``    ``}` `    ``// Recur for children with isOdd  ``    ``// switched.  ``    ``printOddNodes(root.left, !isOdd);``    ``printOddNodes(root.right, !isOdd);``}` `// Utility method to create a node  ``public` `static` `Node newNode(``int` `data)``{``    ``Node node = ``new` `Node();``    ``node.data = data;``    ``node.left = ``null``;``    ``node.right = ``null``;``    ``return` `(node);``}` `// Driver code  ``public` `static` `void` `Main(``string``[] args)``{``    ``Node root = newNode(1);``    ``root.left = newNode(2);``    ``root.right = newNode(3);``    ``root.left.left = newNode(4);``    ``root.left.right = newNode(5);``    ``printOddNodes(root, ``true``);` `}``}` `// This code is contributed by Shrikant13`

## Javascript

 ``

Output
`1 4 5 `

Time complexity : O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(n) for Recursive Stack Space in case of Skewed Tree

Method 2 (Iterative): The above code prints nodes in preorder way. If we wish to print nodes level by level, we can use level order traversal. The idea is based on Print level order traversal line by line
We traverse nodes level by level. We switch odd level flag after every level.

Implementation:

## C++

 `// Iterative C++ program to print odd level nodes``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `struct` `Node {``    ``int` `data;``    ``Node* left, *right;``};` `// Iterative method to do level order traversal line by line``void` `printOddNodes(Node *root)``{``    ``// Base Case``    ``if` `(root == NULL)  ``return``;` `    ``// Create an empty queue for level``    ``// order traversal``    ``queue q;` `    ``// Enqueue root and initialize level as odd``    ``q.push(root);``    ``bool` `isOdd = ``true``;  ` `    ``while` `(1)``    ``{``        ``// nodeCount (queue size) indicates``        ``// number of nodes at current level.``        ``int` `nodeCount = q.size();``        ``if` `(nodeCount == 0)``            ``break``;` `        ``// Dequeue all nodes of current level``        ``// and Enqueue all nodes of next level``        ``while` `(nodeCount > 0)``        ``{``            ``Node *node = q.front();``            ``if` `(isOdd)``               ``cout << node->data << ``" "``;``            ``q.pop();``            ``if` `(node->left != NULL)``                ``q.push(node->left);``            ``if` `(node->right != NULL)``                ``q.push(node->right);``            ``nodeCount--;``        ``}` `        ``isOdd = !isOdd;``    ``}``}` `// Utility method to create a node``struct` `Node* newNode(``int` `data)``{``    ``struct` `Node* node = ``new` `Node;``    ``node->data = data;``    ``node->left = node->right = NULL;``    ``return` `(node);``}` `// Driver code``int` `main()``{``    ``struct` `Node* root = newNode(1);``    ``root->left = newNode(2);``    ``root->right = newNode(3);``    ``root->left->left = newNode(4);``    ``root->left->right = newNode(5);``    ``printOddNodes(root);` `    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Iterative Java program to print odd level nodes ``import` `java.util.*;``class` `GfG {` `static` `class` `Node { ``    ``int` `data; ``    ``Node left, right; ``}` `// Iterative method to do level order traversal line by line ``static` `void` `printOddNodes(Node root) ``{ ``    ``// Base Case ``    ``if` `(root == ``null``) ``return``; ` `    ``// Create an empty queue for level ``    ``// order traversal ``    ``Queue q = ``new` `LinkedList (); ` `    ``// Enqueue root and initialize level as odd ``    ``q.add(root); ``    ``boolean` `isOdd = ``true``; ` `    ``while` `(``true``) ``    ``{ ``        ``// nodeCount (queue size) indicates ``        ``// number of nodes at current level. ``        ``int` `nodeCount = q.size(); ``        ``if` `(nodeCount == ``0``) ``            ``break``; ` `        ``// Dequeue all nodes of current level ``        ``// and Enqueue all nodes of next level ``        ``while` `(nodeCount > ``0``) ``        ``{ ``            ``Node node = q.peek(); ``            ``if` `(isOdd == ``true``) ``            ``System.out.print(node.data + ``" "``); ``            ``q.remove(); ``            ``if` `(node.left != ``null``) ``                ``q.add(node.left); ``            ``if` `(node.right != ``null``) ``                ``q.add(node.right); ``            ``nodeCount--; ``        ``} ` `        ``isOdd = !isOdd; ``    ``} ``} ` `// Utility method to create a node ``static` `Node newNode(``int` `data) ``{ ``    ``Node node = ``new` `Node(); ``    ``node.data = data; ``    ``node.left = ``null``;``    ``node.right = ``null``; ``    ``return` `(node); ``} ` `// Driver code ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ``{ ``    ``Node root = newNode(``1``); ``    ``root.left = newNode(``2``); ``    ``root.right = newNode(``3``); ``    ``root.left.left = newNode(``4``); ``    ``root.left.right = newNode(``5``); ``    ``printOddNodes(root); ``} ``} `

## Python3

 `# Iterative Python3 program to print odd``# level nodes` `# A Binary Tree Node``# Utility function to create a``# new tree Node ``class` `newNode: ``    ``def` `__init__(``self``, data): ``        ``self``.data ``=` `data ``        ``self``.left ``=` `self``.right ``=` `None``        ` `# Iterative method to do level order``# traversal line by line ``def` `printOddNodes(root) :` `    ``# Base Case ``    ``if` `(root ``=``=` `None``):``        ``return` `    ``# Create an empty queue for  ``    ``# level order traversal ``    ``q ``=` `[]` `    ``# Enqueue root and initialize``    ``# level as odd ``    ``q.append(root) ``    ``isOdd ``=` `True` `    ``while` `(``1``) :``    ` `        ``# nodeCount (queue size) indicates ``        ``# number of nodes at current level. ``        ``nodeCount ``=` `len``(q) ``        ``if` `(nodeCount ``=``=` `0``) :``            ``break` `        ``# Dequeue all nodes of current level ``        ``# and Enqueue all nodes of next level ``        ``while` `(nodeCount > ``0``): ``        ` `            ``node ``=` `q[``0``]``            ``if` `(isOdd): ``                ``print``(node.data, end ``=` `" "``)``            ``q.pop(``0``) ``            ``if` `(node.left !``=` `None``) :``                ``q.append(node.left) ``            ``if` `(node.right !``=` `None``) :``                ``q.append(node.right) ``            ``nodeCount ``-``=` `1``            ` `        ``isOdd ``=` `not` `isOdd ` `# Driver Code ``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:``    ``root ``=` `newNode(``1``) ``    ``root.left ``=` `newNode(``2``) ``    ``root.right ``=` `newNode(``3``) ``    ``root.left.left ``=` `newNode(``4``) ``    ``root.left.right ``=` `newNode(``5``) ``    ``printOddNodes(root)` `# This code is contributed``# by SHUBHAMSINGH10`

## C#

 `// Iterative C# program to ``// print odd level nodes``using` `System;``using` `System.Collections.Generic;` `public` `class` `GfG ``{``    ``public` `class` `Node ``    ``{ ``        ``public` `int` `data; ``        ``public` `Node left, right; ``    ``}` `    ``// Iterative method to do level ``    ``// order traversal line by line ``    ``static` `void` `printOddNodes(Node root) ``    ``{ ``        ``// Base Case ``        ``if` `(root == ``null``) ``return``; ` `        ``// Create an empty queue for level ``        ``// order traversal ``        ``Queue q = ``new` `Queue (); ` `        ``// Enqueue root and initialize level as odd ``        ``q.Enqueue(root); ``        ``bool` `isOdd = ``true``; ` `        ``while` `(``true``) ``        ``{ ``            ``// nodeCount (queue size) indicates ``            ``// number of nodes at current level. ``            ``int` `nodeCount = q.Count; ``            ``if` `(nodeCount == 0) ``                ``break``; ` `            ``// Dequeue all nodes of current level ``            ``// and Enqueue all nodes of next level ``            ``while` `(nodeCount > 0) ``            ``{ ``                ``Node node = q.Peek(); ``                ``if` `(isOdd == ``true``) ``                    ``Console.Write(node.data + ``" "``); ``                ``q.Dequeue(); ``                ``if` `(node.left != ``null``) ``                    ``q.Enqueue(node.left); ``                ``if` `(node.right != ``null``) ``                    ``q.Enqueue(node.right); ``                ``nodeCount--; ``            ``} ``            ``isOdd = !isOdd; ``        ``} ``    ``} ` `    ``// Utility method to create a node ``    ``static` `Node newNode(``int` `data) ``    ``{ ``        ``Node node = ``new` `Node(); ``        ``node.data = data; ``        ``node.left = ``null``;``        ``node.right = ``null``; ``        ``return` `(node); ``    ``} ` `    ``// Driver code ``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args) ``    ``{ ``        ``Node root = newNode(1); ``        ``root.left = newNode(2); ``        ``root.right = newNode(3); ``        ``root.left.left = newNode(4); ``        ``root.left.right = newNode(5); ``        ``printOddNodes(root); ``    ``} ``}` `// This code has been contributed``// by 29AjayKumar`

## Javascript

 ``

Output
`1 4 5 `

Time complexity : O(n)
Auxiliary Space: O(n) for Queue Data Structure

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