Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article

Php Program to Find the Longest Bitonic Subsequence

  • Last Updated : 21 Dec, 2021

Given an array arr[0 … n-1] containing n positive integers, a subsequence of arr[] is called Bitonic if it is first increasing, then decreasing. Write a function that takes an array as argument and returns the length of the longest bitonic subsequence. 
A sequence, sorted in increasing order is considered Bitonic with the decreasing part as empty. Similarly, decreasing order sequence is considered Bitonic with the increasing part as empty. 
Examples:

Input arr[] = {1, 11, 2, 10, 4, 5, 2, 1};
Output: 6 (A Longest Bitonic Subsequence of length 6 is 1, 2, 10, 4, 2, 1)

Input arr[] = {12, 11, 40, 5, 3, 1}
Output: 5 (A Longest Bitonic Subsequence of length 5 is 12, 11, 5, 3, 1)

Input arr[] = {80, 60, 30, 40, 20, 10}
Output: 5 (A Longest Bitonic Subsequence of length 5 is 80, 60, 30, 20, 10)

Source: Microsoft Interview Question
 

Solution 
This problem is a variation of standard Longest Increasing Subsequence (LIS) problem. Let the input array be arr[] of length n. We need to construct two arrays lis[] and lds[] using Dynamic Programming solution of LIS problem. lis[i] stores the length of the Longest Increasing subsequence ending with arr[i]. lds[i] stores the length of the longest Decreasing subsequence starting from arr[i]. Finally, we need to return the max value of lis[i] + lds[i] – 1 where i is from 0 to n-1.
Following is the implementation of the above Dynamic Programming solution. 
 

PHP




<?php 
// Dynamic Programming implementation
// of longest bitonic subsequence problem 
  
/* lbs() returns the length of the Longest 
   Bitonic Subsequence in arr[] of size n. 
   The function mainly creates two temporary 
   arrays lis[] and lds[] and returns the 
   maximum lis[i] + lds[i] - 1.
  
   lis[i] ==> Longest Increasing subsequence
              ending with arr[i]
   lds[i] ==> Longest decreasing subsequence 
              starting with arr[i]
*/
function lbs(&$arr, $n)
{
  
    /* Allocate memory for LIS[] and initialize 
       LIS values as 1 for all indexes */
    $lis = array_fill(0, $n, NULL);
    for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
        $lis[$i] = 1;
      
    /* Compute LIS values from left to right */
    for ($i = 1; $i < $n; $i++)
        for ($j = 0; $j < $i; $j++)
            if ($arr[$i] > $arr[$j] && 
                $lis[$i] < $lis[$j] + 1)
                $lis[$i] = $lis[$j] + 1;
      
    /* Allocate memory for lds and initialize 
       LDS values for all indexes */
    $lds = array_fill(0, $n, NULL);
    for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
        $lds[$i] = 1;
      
    /* Compute LDS values from right to left */
    for ($i = $n - 2; $i >= 0; $i--)
        for ($j = $n - 1; $j > $i; $j--)
            if ($arr[$i] > $arr[$j] && 
                $lds[$i] < $lds[$j] + 1)
                $lds[$i] = $lds[$j] + 1;
      
    /* Return the maximum value of 
       lis[i] + lds[i] - 1*/
    $max = $lis[0] + $lds[0] - 1;
    for ($i = 1; $i < $n; $i++)
        if ($lis[$i] + $lds[$i] - 1 > $max)
            $max = $lis[$i] + $lds[$i] - 1;
    return $max;
}
  
// Driver Code
$arr = array(0, 8, 4, 12, 2, 10, 6, 14, 
             1, 9, 5, 13, 3, 11, 7, 15);
$n = sizeof($arr);
echo "Length of LBS is " . lbs( $arr, $n );
  
// This code is contributed by ita_c
?>

Output: 

 Length of LBS is 7

Time Complexity: O(n^2) 
Auxiliary Space: O(n)
 

Please refer complete article on Longest Bitonic Subsequence | DP-15 for more details!


My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :

Start Your Coding Journey Now!