# Perform Operations over Margins of an Array or Matrix in R Programming – apply() Function

• Last Updated : 04 Jun, 2020

`apply()` function in R Language is used to perform mathematical operations across elements of an array or a matrix.

Syntax: apply(x, margin, func)

Parameters:
x: Array or matrix
margin: dimension on which operation is to be applied
func: operation to be applied

Example 1:

 `# R program to illustrate ``# apply() function ``   ` `# Creating a matrix ``A ``=` `matrix(``1``:``9``, ``3``, ``3``) ``print``(A) ``   ` `# Applying apply() over row of matrix ``# Here margin 1 is for row  ``r ``=` `apply``(A, ``1``, ``sum``) ``print``(r) ``   ` `# Applying apply() over column of matrix ``# Here margin 2 is for column ``c ``=` `apply``(A, ``2``, ``sum``) ``print``(c) `

Output:

```     [, 1] [, 2] [, 3]
[1, ]    1    4    7
[2, ]    2    5    8
[3, ]    3    6    9
 12 15 18
  6 15 24
```

Example 2:

 `# R program to illustrate ``# apply() function ``   ` `# Creating a matrix ``A ``=` `matrix(``1``:``9``, ``3``, ``3``) ``print``(A) ``   ` `# Applying apply() over row of matrix ``# Here margin 1 is for row  ``r ``=` `apply``(A, ``1``, prod) ``print``(r) ``   ` `# Applying apply() over column of matrix ``# Here margin 2 is for column ``c ``=` `apply``(A, ``2``, prod) ``print``(c) `

Output:

```     [, 1] [, 2] [, 3]
[1, ]    1    4    7
[2, ]    2    5    8
[3, ]    3    6    9
  28  80 162
   6 120 504
```

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