Perform Operations over Margins of an Array or Matrix in R Programming – apply() Function

• Last Updated : 04 Jun, 2020

apply() function in R Language is used to perform mathematical operations across elements of an array or a matrix.

Syntax: apply(x, margin, func)

Parameters:
x: Array or matrix
margin: dimension on which operation is to be applied
func: operation to be applied

Example 1:

 # R program to illustrate # apply() function     # Creating a matrix A = matrix(1:9, 3, 3) print(A)     # Applying apply() over row of matrix # Here margin 1 is for row  r = apply(A, 1, sum) print(r)     # Applying apply() over column of matrix # Here margin 2 is for column c = apply(A, 2, sum) print(c)

Output:

[, 1] [, 2] [, 3]
[1, ]    1    4    7
[2, ]    2    5    8
[3, ]    3    6    9
 12 15 18
  6 15 24

Example 2:

 # R program to illustrate # apply() function     # Creating a matrix A = matrix(1:9, 3, 3) print(A)     # Applying apply() over row of matrix # Here margin 1 is for row  r = apply(A, 1, prod) print(r)     # Applying apply() over column of matrix # Here margin 2 is for column c = apply(A, 2, prod) print(c)

Output:

[, 1] [, 2] [, 3]
[1, ]    1    4    7
[2, ]    2    5    8
[3, ]    3    6    9
  28  80 162
   6 120 504

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