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Major Food Crops in India

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  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 13 Apr, 2022
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Agribusiness helps in the creation of wares that are fundamental for the support of life that incorporates fiber, food, and different yields. Farming includes the different precise utilization of developing harvests that aid in the creation of food which is of the very sorts of plants that are developed at a specific spot. The yields developed are additionally utilized for selling and acquiring food. Yielding of harvests incorporates vegetables, beats, and different decorative plants and so forth, each harvest requires some measure of assets which incorporate daylight and water with carbon dioxide and the supplements that are given commonly. 

Agribusiness assumes a significant part in the Indian economy as a large portion of the provincial families are subject to farming for their endurance and it gives work to half of the populace.
Each nation relies on horticulture to support its life and it is related to the development of yields. The inception of progress began with farming and its significance goes above as it developed into ranger service, food development, dairy, beekeeping, and so on. A creating or a created country generally relies on farming for its food as the interest for food increments and influences monetary development by making it a significant component of the financial development of each country. A few yields are expected for their crude items as they give medical advantages and establish minerals and different supplements that are utilized for therapeutic purposes and are incredible for keeping a sound eating regimen and giving supplements to the human body.

India remains in the second position on the planet for farming creation and ninth and fifth position in administration and industry areas separately. 

Essential activities

In the main stage, people were involved straightforwardly with the assets of nature. These are age-old exercises – food gathering, hunting creatures, brushing, separating minerals (mining), fishing, blundering, and developing the land. These exercises are called essential exercises and labourers associated with essential exercises are called red-collar labourers.

Auxiliary activities

Humans can build the worth of assets by handling and changing over the unrefined components into a significant item. Instances of such exercises are the development of sugar from sugarcane and iron and steel from their natural substances, and so on. These exercises are called auxiliary exercises. Labourers associated with optional exercises are called regular labourers.

Tertiary activities

Exchange, transport, and correspondence, which are connected with administrations that advance auxiliary exercises, are known as tertiary exercises. Tertiary exercises include the mastery given by the particular abilities of specialists, labourers, financiers, and so on The specialists engaged with tertiary exercises are called pink-collar labourers.

Classification of farming in India

  • Subsistence cultivation
  • Commercial cultivation
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Intensive cultivation
  • Extensive cultivation
  • Plantation cultivation
  • Mixed cultivation

Subsistence cultivation

A greater part of ranchers in India practice resource cultivating. It is described by little and dissipated land property and utilization of crude apparatuses, similar to dig and digging sticks by relatives. As the ranchers are poor, they don’t involve manures and a high-yielding assortment of seeds in their fields.
Eg: Fruits, Vegetables, and rice.

Commercial cultivation 

This arrangement of farming includes development of yields available to be purchased on the lookout. These yields are called cash crops. They incorporate sugarcane, tobacco, and oilseeds. It is typically rehearsed in regions where a lot of land is accessible and market economy is all around created.

Shifting cultivation

It is a cut and consume agribusiness. Ranchers clear a fix of land and produce oats and other food harvests to support their loved ones. At the point when the dirt richness diminishes, the ranchers shift and clear a new fix of land for development.
Eg: Examples of ongoing moving development plots India.

  • A wrap of swidden (kumri) cleared in the soggy deciduous tropical backwoods for kumri development in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, planted with millets, transcendently Eleusine coracana.
  • Small plot of moving development (jhum) in the Simlipal Hills area of northern Orissa, planted with Sorghum bicolor and interplanted with heartbeats and different yields.

Intensive cultivation

This is a process for cultivating under which little homesteads are developed seriously utilizing huge contributions of physical work, composts and manures. Typically, more than one yield is developed on a similar field. The primary yields developed are rice and wheat.

Extensive cultivation

This kind of cultivating is rehearsed on ranches of enormous size with the assistance of machines and the contribution of work per unit region is low. The accentuation is laid on expanded creation. The fundamental harvests developed are rice, wheat, sugarcane, and so forth.


These are enormous lots of land or homes utilized for development of a solitary rural harvest like tea, coffee, elastic or flavors. The ranch crops ordinarily take care of the product market and acquire unfamiliar trade.

Mixed cultivation

Cultivation of yields and raising of animals together is called mixed cultivating. At least two yields come together. It guarantees consistent pay to the ranchers.
Eg: The development of yields close by the raising of animals for meat or eggs or milk characterizes blended cultivating. For instance, a blended homestead might develop grain harvests like wheat or rye and furthermore keep steers, sheep, pigs or poultry. Regularly the manure from the steers prepares the cereal yields.

Different food crops filled in India

Indian agribusiness is to a great extent overwhelmed by food crops which involve 65% of the complete trimmed region of the country. They are developed all through the country either as a sole yield or in blend with different harvests. The significant food crops in India are rice, wheat, grain, maize, millets (jowar, bajra, ragi) and heartbeats (counting gram and tur).

Climatic condition expected for Rice creation

It is a Kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25C) and high stickiness with yearly precipitation over 100 cm. In the space of less precipitation, it develops with the assistance of the water system. Deltas, estuaries, flood fields and valleys of waterways give astounding circumstances to the development of rice.

Profound rich clayey or loamy soils are appropriate for rice development. Rice flourish in the alluvial soils along the stream banks. The dirt ought to have the option to hold standing water in the field. This peculiarity shields the plants from bugs which can’t make due submerged. Soils need compost and manures to create a better return.

India contributes 22% of rice creation on the planet. West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the main makers of rice in the country. The other rice delivering states are Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat and Telangana.

Climatic condition expected for Wheat creation

It fills best in cool, wet environments and matures in a warm, dry environment. It expects 50 to 75 cm of yearly precipitation equitably appropriated over the developing season. In a perfect world, temperature in the scope of 10C-15C is reasonable for planting; and 20-25C during the harvest.

Wheat fills best in all around depleted soils and dirt topsoils. During germination the plant needs adequate soil dampness. The majority of the normal bread wheat is developed on the alluvial soils of the Great Plains, though macaroni wheat is developed on the dark soils of focal and southern pieces of India. Tritium dicoccum develops on the red soils of the Nigiri Hills.

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh are the five driving makers of wheat in the country. The yield of wheat is exceptionally high in Punjab and Haryana and moderate in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar. In Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, wheat has become under rainfed conditions and, hence, the yield is low.

Climatic conditions for Maize creation

Maize is a harvest which is utilized both as food and grub. It is a kharif crop which requires temperature between 21degree Celsius – 27 degree Celsius and becomes well in old alluvial soil. In certain states like Bihar maize is filled in rabi season too. Utilization of present day information sources, for example, HYV seeds, manures and water systems have added to the rising creation of maize. 

    Considerable maize delivering governments are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Climatic conditions, soil and dispersion of Bajra

Bajra is a short season kharif crop. It is developed either as an unadulterated or blended crop. The ideal temperature for its development is between 25 degree Celsius to 30 degree Celsius.Bajra is developed on the red or the sandy topsoils. It likewise does well in the dark well. 

The primary Bajra developing states are Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.

Sample Questions

Question 1: In India farming is an essential action. Give reasons.


Agriculture is an activity of developing harvests, organic products, vegetables, blossoms and raising of animals. It is a primary activity since it straightforwardly includes regular resources. In India, an immense number of individuals determine the activity from their precursors.
A huge part of India is loaded with profoundly ripe land. In addition, India is a thickly populated country and consequently needs food grain creation for an enormous scope. The storm environment of India is exceptionally great for cultivating. Henceforth, horticulture is the real monetary movement in India.

Question 2: What are the harvests developed by individuals of the Amazon Basin?


Individuals of Amazon Basin develop custard, pine apple and yam. Cash harvests, for example, espresso, maize and cocoa are likewise developed.

Question 3: Name the fiber crops and talk about the climatic circumstances expected for their development.


  • Cotton, jute, hemp and regular silk are the four significant fiber crops in India.
  • Cotton fills well in drier pieces of the dark cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. It requires high temperature, light precipitation or irrigation, 210 ice free days and brilliant daylight for its development.
  • Jute develops well on very much depleted prolific soils in the floodplains where soils are recharged consistently. A high temperature is expected during the hour of development.

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