# How to find Lexicographically previous permutation?

Given a word, find a lexicographically smaller permutation of it. For example, lexicographically smaller permutation of “4321” is “4312” and the next smaller permutation of “4312” is “4231”. If the string is sorted in ascending order, the next lexicographically smaller permutation doesn’t exist.

We have discussed next_permutation() which modifies a string so that it stores lexicographically smaller permutations. STL also provides std::prev_permutation. It returns ‘true’ if the function could rearrange the object as a lexicographically smaller permutation. Otherwise, it returns ‘false’.

## C++

`// C++ program to demonstrate working of` `// prev_permutation()` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `string str = ` `"4321"` `;` ` ` `if` `(prev_permutation(str.begin(), str.end()))` ` ` `cout << ` `"Previous permutation is "` `<< str;` ` ` `else` ` ` `cout << ` `"Previous permutation doesn't exist"` `;` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

**Output**

Previous permutation is 4312

**Time Complexity:** O(N)m where N is the size of the given string.**Auxiliary Space: **O(1), as constant space is used.

**How to write our own prev_permutation()?**

Below are steps to find the previous permutation:

- Find largest index i such that str[i – 1] > str[i].
- Find largest index j such that j >= i and str[j] < str[i – 1].
- Swap str[j] and str[i – 1].
- Reverse the sub-array starting at str[i].

Below is the implementation of above steps as follows:

## C++

`// C++ program to print all permutations with` `// duplicates allowed using prev_permutation()` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to compute the previous permutation` `bool` `prevPermutation(string& str)` `{` ` ` `// Find index of the last element of the string` ` ` `int` `n = str.length() - 1;` ` ` `// Find largest index i such that str[i - 1] >` ` ` `// str[i]` ` ` `int` `i = n;` ` ` `while` `(i > 0 && str[i - 1] <= str[i])` ` ` `i--;` ` ` `// if string is sorted in ascending order` ` ` `// we're at the last permutation` ` ` `if` `(i <= 0)` ` ` `return` `false` `;` ` ` `// Note - str[i..n] is sorted in ascending order` ` ` `// Find rightmost element's index that is less` ` ` `// than str[i - 1]` ` ` `int` `j = i - 1;` ` ` `while` `(j + 1 <= n && str[j + 1] < str[i - 1])` ` ` `j++;` ` ` `// Swap character at i-1 with j` ` ` `swap(str[i - 1], str[j]);` ` ` `// Reverse the substring [i..n]` ` ` `reverse(str.begin() + i, str.end());` ` ` `return` `true` `;` `}` `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `string str = ` `"4321"` `;` ` ` `if` `(prevPermutation(str))` ` ` `cout << ` `"Previous permutation is "` `<< str;` ` ` `else` ` ` `cout << ` `"Previous permutation doesn't exist"` `;` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

## Java

`// Java program to print all` `// permutations with duplicates` `// allowed using prev_permutation()` `class` `GFG {` ` ` `// Function to compute` ` ` `// the previous permutation` ` ` `static` `boolean` `prevPermutation(` `char` `[] str)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Find index of the last` ` ` `// element of the string` ` ` `int` `n = str.length - ` `1` `;` ` ` `// Find largest index i such` ` ` `// that str[i - 1] > str[i]` ` ` `int` `i = n;` ` ` `while` `(i > ` `0` `&& str[i - ` `1` `] <= str[i]) {` ` ` `i--;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// if string is sorted in` ` ` `// ascending order we're` ` ` `// at the last permutation` ` ` `if` `(i <= ` `0` `) {` ` ` `return` `false` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Note - str[i..n] is sorted` ` ` `// in ascending order Find` ` ` `// rightmost element's index` ` ` `// that is less than str[i - 1]` ` ` `int` `j = i - ` `1` `;` ` ` `while` `(j + ` `1` `<= n && str[j + ` `1` `] <= str[i - ` `1` `]) {` ` ` `j++;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Swap character at i-1 with j` ` ` `swap(str, i - ` `1` `, j);` ` ` `// Reverse the substring [i..n]` ` ` `StringBuilder sb` ` ` `= ` `new` `StringBuilder(String.valueOf(str));` ` ` `sb.reverse();` ` ` `str = sb.toString().toCharArray();` ` ` `return` `true` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `static` `String swap(` `char` `[] ch, ` `int` `i, ` `int` `j)` ` ` `{` ` ` `char` `temp = ch[i];` ` ` `ch[i] = ch[j];` ` ` `ch[j] = temp;` ` ` `return` `String.valueOf(ch);` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` ` ` `{` ` ` `char` `[] str = ` `"4321"` `.toCharArray();` ` ` `if` `(prevPermutation(str)) {` ` ` `System.out.println(` `"Previous permutation is "` ` ` `+ String.valueOf(str));` ` ` `}` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `System.out.println(` `"Previous permutation"` ` ` `+ ` `"doesn't exist"` `);` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar` |

## Python

`# Python 3 program to` `# print all permutations with` `# duplicates allowed` `# using prev_permutation()` `# Function to compute the` `# previous permutation` `def` `prevPermutation(` `str` `):` ` ` `# Find index of the last element` ` ` `# of the string` ` ` `n ` `=` `len` `(` `str` `) ` `-` `1` ` ` `# Find largest index i such that` ` ` `# str[i - 1] > str[i]` ` ` `i ` `=` `n` ` ` `while` `(i > ` `0` `and` `str` `[i ` `-` `1` `] <` `=` `str` `[i]):` ` ` `i ` `-` `=` `1` ` ` `# if string is sorted in ascending order` ` ` `# we're at the last permutation` ` ` `if` `(i <` `=` `0` `):` ` ` `return` `False` `, ` `str` ` ` `# Note - str[i..n] is sorted in` ` ` `# ascending order` ` ` `# Find rightmost element's index` ` ` `# that is less than str[i - 1]` ` ` `j ` `=` `i ` `-` `1` ` ` `while` `(j ` `+` `1` `<` `=` `n ` `and` ` ` `str` `[j ` `+` `1` `] < ` `str` `[i ` `-` `1` `]):` ` ` `j ` `+` `=` `1` ` ` `# Swap character at i-1 with j` ` ` `str` `=` `list` `(` `str` `)` ` ` `temp ` `=` `str` `[i ` `-` `1` `]` ` ` `str` `[i ` `-` `1` `] ` `=` `str` `[j]` ` ` `str` `[j] ` `=` `temp` ` ` `str` `=` `''.join(` `str` `)` ` ` `# Reverse the substring [i..n]` ` ` `str` `[i::` `-` `1` `]` ` ` `return` `True` `, ` `str` `# Driver code` `if` `__name__ ` `=` `=` `'__main__'` `:` ` ` `str` `=` `"133"` ` ` `b, ` `str` `=` `prevPermutation(` `str` `)` ` ` `if` `(b ` `=` `=` `True` `):` ` ` `print` `(` `"Previous permutation is"` `, ` `str` `)` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` `print` `(` `"Previous permutation doesn't exist"` `)` `# This code is contributed by` `# Sanjit_Prasad` |

## C#

`// C# program to print all` `// permutations with duplicates` `// allowed using prev_permutation()` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG {` ` ` `// Function to compute` ` ` `// the previous permutation` ` ` `static` `Boolean prevPermutation(` `char` `[] str)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Find index of the last` ` ` `// element of the string` ` ` `int` `n = str.Length - 1;` ` ` `// Find largest index i such` ` ` `// that str[i - 1] > str[i]` ` ` `int` `i = n;` ` ` `while` `(i > 0 && str[i - 1] <= str[i]) {` ` ` `i--;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// if string is sorted in` ` ` `// ascending order we're` ` ` `// at the last permutation` ` ` `if` `(i <= 0) {` ` ` `return` `false` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Note - str[i..n] is sorted` ` ` `// in ascending order Find` ` ` `// rightmost element's index` ` ` `// that is less than str[i - 1]` ` ` `int` `j = i - 1;` ` ` `while` `(j + 1 <= n && str[j + 1] <= str[i - 1]) {` ` ` `j++;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Swap character at i-1 with j` ` ` `swap(str, i - 1, j);` ` ` `// Reverse the substring [i..n]` ` ` `String sb = String.Join(` `""` `, str);` ` ` `sb = reverse(sb);` ` ` `str = sb.ToString().ToCharArray();` ` ` `return` `true` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` `static` `String swap(` `char` `[] ch, ` `int` `i, ` `int` `j)` ` ` `{` ` ` `char` `temp = ch[i];` ` ` `ch[i] = ch[j];` ` ` `ch[j] = temp;` ` ` `return` `String.Join(` `""` `, ch);` ` ` `}` ` ` `static` `String reverse(String input)` ` ` `{` ` ` `char` `[] temparray = input.ToCharArray();` ` ` `int` `left, right = 0;` ` ` `right = temparray.Length - 1;` ` ` `for` `(left = 0; left < right; left++, right--) {` ` ` `// Swap values of left and right` ` ` `char` `temp = temparray[left];` ` ` `temparray[left] = temparray[right];` ` ` `temparray[right] = temp;` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `String.Join(` `""` `, temparray);` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)` ` ` `{` ` ` `char` `[] str = ` `"4321"` `.ToCharArray();` ` ` `if` `(prevPermutation(str)) {` ` ` `Console.WriteLine(` `"Previous permutation is "` ` ` `+ String.Join(` `""` `, str));` ` ` `}` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `Console.WriteLine(` `"Previous permutation"` ` ` `+ ` `"doesn't exist"` `);` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji` |

## Javascript

`// Javascript program to print all` `// permutations with duplicates` `// allowed using prev_permutation()` ` ` `// Function to compute` `// the previous permutation` `function` `prevPermutation(str){ ` ` ` `// Find index of the last` ` ` `// element of the string` ` ` `let n = str.length - 1;` ` ` ` ` `// Find largest index i such` ` ` `// that str[i - 1] > str[i]` ` ` `let i = n;` ` ` `while` `(i > 0 && str[i - 1] <= str[i]){` ` ` `i--;` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// If string is sorted in` ` ` `// ascending order we're` ` ` `// at the last permutation` ` ` `if` `(i <= 0){` ` ` `return` `false` `;` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Note - str[i..n] is sorted` ` ` `// in ascending order Find` ` ` `// rightmost element's index` ` ` `// that is less than str[i - 1]` ` ` `let j = i - 1;` ` ` `while` `(j + 1 <= n && str[j + 1] < str[i - 1]){` ` ` `j++;` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Swap character at i-1 with j` ` ` `const temper = str[i - 1];` ` ` `str[i - 1] = str[j];` ` ` `str[j] = temper;` ` ` ` ` `// Reverse the substring [i..n]` ` ` `let size = n-i+1;` ` ` `for` `(let idx = 0; idx < Math.floor(size / 2); idx++) {` ` ` `let temp = str[idx + i];` ` ` `str[idx + i] = str[n - idx];` ` ` `str[n - idx] = temp;` ` ` `}` ` ` `return` `true` `;` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` `let str = ` `"4321"` `.split(` `""` `);` `if` `(prevPermutation(str))` `{` ` ` `console.log(` `"Previous permutation is "` `+` ` ` `(str).join(` `""` `));` `}` `else` `{` ` ` `console.log(` `"Previous permutation"` `+` ` ` `"doesn't exist"` `);` `}` ` ` `// This code is contributed by Gautam goel (gautamgoel962)` |

**Output**

Previous permutation is 4312

**Time Complexity:** O(N)m where N is the size of the given string.**Auxiliary Space: **O(1), as constant space is used.

This article is contributed by **Aarti_Rathi **and **Aditya Goel**. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article and mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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