HyperlinkedModelSerializer in serializers – Django REST Framework
HyperlinkedModelSerializer is a layer of abstraction over the default serializer that allows to quickly create a serializer for a model in Django. Django REST Framework is a wrapper over default Django Framework, basically used to create APIs of various kinds. There are three stages before creating a API through REST framework, Converting a Model’s data to JSON/XML format (Serialization), Rendering this data to the view, Creating a URL for mapping to the viewset. This article revolves around HyperlinkedModelSerializer in serializers of Django REST Framework.
The HyperlinkedModelSerializer class is similar to the ModelSerializer class except that it uses hyperlinks to represent relationships, rather than primary keys. By default the serializer will include a url field instead of a primary key field. The url field will be represented using a HyperlinkedIdentityField serializer field, and any relationships on the model will be represented using a HyperlinkedRelatedField serializer field.
By default, all the model fields on the class will be mapped to a corresponding serializer fields.
How to create a HyperlinkedModelSerializer using Django REST Framework ?
Add rest_framework to INSTALLED_APPS
To initialize REST Framework in your project, go to
settings.py, and in INSTALLED_APPS add ‘rest_framework’ at the bottom.
Create a app and model
Now, let’s create a app using command,
python manage.py startapp apis
A folder with name apis would have been registered by now. let’s add this app to INSTALLED_APPS and urls.py also.
Now, add apis urls in urls.py. In geeksforgeeks.urls.py,
Create a model
To demonstrate, creating and using an API, let’s create a model named “GeeksModel”. In apis/models.py
now our app is ready, let’s serialize the data and create views from the same.
Serializers allow complex data such as querysets and model instances to be converted to native Python datatypes that can then be easily rendered into JSON, XML or other content types. Serializers also provide deserialization, allowing parsed data to be converted back into complex types, after first validating the incoming data. Let’s start creating a serializer, in file
Creating a viewset
To render data into frontend, and handle requests from user, we need to create a view. In Django REST Framework, we call these as viewsets, so let’s create a view in
Define URLs of API
Specify the url path of APIs to be accessed, In
After everything is successfully ready, let’s run some commands to activate the server.
Run server and check API
Run following commands to create the database, and run server,
python manage.py makemigrations python manage.py migrate python manage.py runserver
Now visit http://127.0.0.1:8000/geeks/,
One can check that HyperlinkedModelSerializer has created a endpoint with overall CRUD functionality.
To check the code for the project, click here
Specifying which fields to include
If you only want a subset of the default fields to be used in a model serializer, you can do so using fields or exclude options, just as you would with a ModelForm.
or exclude Example :
Specifying read only fields
One may wish to specify multiple fields as read-only. Instead of adding each field explicitly with the read_only=True attribute, you can use the shortcut Meta option, read_only_fields.
This option should be a list or tuple of field names, and is declared as follows:
Changing the URL field name
The name of the URL field defaults to ‘url’. You can override this globally, by using the URL_FIELD_NAME setting.
To check more about HyperlinkedModelSerializer, visit HyperlinkedModelSerializer Documentation
Core arguments in serializer fields
|read_only||Set this to True to ensure that the field is used when serializing a representation, but is not used when creating or updating an instance during deserialization|
|write_only||Set this to True to ensure that the field may be used when updating or creating an instance, but is not included when serializing the representation.|
|required||Setting this to False also allows the object attribute or dictionary key to be omitted from output when serializing the instance.|
|default||If set, this gives the default value that will be used for the field if no input value is supplied.|
|allow_null||Normally an error will be raised if None is passed to a serializer field. Set this keyword argument to True if None should be considered a valid value.|
|source||The name of the attribute that will be used to populate the field.|
|validators||A list of validator functions which should be applied to the incoming field input, and which either raise a validation error or simply return.|
|error_messages||A dictionary of error codes to error messages.|
|label||A short text string that may be used as the name of the field in HTML form fields or other descriptive elements.|
|help_text||A text string that may be used as a description of the field in HTML form fields or other descriptive elements.|
|initial||A value that should be used for pre-populating the value of HTML form fields.|