Hydride in Chemistry is the name of a compound containing Hydrogen Anion. Hydrides are chemical compounds with one atom of hydrogen and an extra atom. Hence, they are an anion of Hydrogen. An anion is a species that has extra electrons and thus exhibits a negative charge. Thus, hydride (hydrogen anion) has a negative charge. In hydride, the oxidation number of hydrogen is -1. Various examples of hydrides are, Water(H2O), Methane(CH4), Ammonia(NH3), etc.
In this article, we will learn about, Hydrides Definition, Types of Hydrides, Uses of Hydrides, and others in detail.
What are Hydrides?
Hydrides or Hydrogen Anion are the compounds in which the hydrogen anion is attached with lesser electronegative elements. Thus, we can say that if hydrogen reacts with any element and forms a compound the compounds formed are called Hydrides.
In the periodic table only the element of the VA group does not react with hydrogen anion and form hydrides and this gap in the periodic table is called Hydride Gap. Noble gas are highly stable elements and generally they also do not react with hydrogen atom. The types of hydrides are added below,
Types of Hydrides
Hydrides are classified into three categories that are,
- Ionic Hydride (Saline Hydride)
- Covalent Hydride
- Metallic Hydride
These hydride vary on the basis of bond between hydrogen anion and other element. Let’s learn about them in detail.
Ionic or Saline Hydrides
When a hydrogen anion combines with highly electropositive s-block components (Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals), they produce Ionic Hydrides or Saline Hydrides. Ionic hydrides are crystalline, non-conducting, and non-volatile solid compounds. When ionic hydrides are electrolyzed, hydrogen gas is liberated at the anode.
Examples of Ionic or Saline Hydrides
NaH, KH, LiH, CaH2, etc.
In their pure form Hydride are white crystalline solids and they liberate hydrogen gas at the anode. Ionic hydrides do not dissolve in conventional solvent.
If the hydrogen anions reacts with other similar electronegative elements such that, Si, C, etc. Thus, if hydrogen anion react with non-metals they form covalent hydrides. In the covalent hydrides the bond form is covalent bond. These covalent hydrides are volatile or non-volatile in nature. The covalent hydrides exist in liquid and gaseous form. Haloges form the p-block reacts with hydrogen to form Halogen Hydrides and their general form is HX where H is hydride ion and X is Halogen ion. Some example of HX are, HCl, HBr, HI, etc.
Examples of Covalent Hydrides
SiH4(silane), CH4(methane), NH3(ammonia), etc.
If the hydrogen react with the transition elements of the d-block then compounds so formed are called metallic hydrides. They are stable compound and are boned by the metallic bonds.
In d-block the elements of group 7, 8, and 9 do not react with hydrogen to form hydride compound and this phenomenon is called the hydrogen gap of d-block element. The metallic hydride fomrd by other d-block elements are in Solid State. These compounds are good conductors of electricity and have high thermal capacity.
Examples of Metal Hydrides
TiH, UH3, etc.
Apart form these three hydrides there is one other type of Hydride that is called Binary Hydrides. Let’s learn about the binary hydride in detail.
Binary hydrides is another category of Hydrides and the The free hydride ion does not exist in these types of hydrides. They are called Binary as there are only two kinds of atoms in them one is hydrogen and other is a less electronegative as compared to hydrogen.
Binary Hydride Examples
Example of Binary Hydride is, Barium Hydride, Alluminium Hydride, Cesium Hydride, etc.
Uses of Hydrides
Various uses of the hydrides are,
- Hydrides such as sodium borohydride, DIBAL, and super hydride are often utilised as reducing agents. The hydride reacts with an electrophilic core, which is usually unsaturated carbon.
- In organic synthesis, hydrides such as sodium hydride and potassium hydride are utilised as strong bases. When the hydride combines with the weak Bronsted acid, it produces H2.
- Desiccants, or drying agents, such as calcium hydride, are used to eliminate trace water from organic solvents. When the hydride combines with water, it produces hydrogen and hydroxide salt. The dry solvent can then be vacuum transferred or distilled from the solvent pot.
- Hydrides play a vital role in storage battery technologies like the nickel-metal hydride battery. Various metal hydrides have been investigated for use as hydrogen storage for fuel cell-powered electric vehicles and other components of a hydrogen economy.
- Hydride complexes act as catalysts and intermediates in a wide range of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic cycles. Catalysts for hydrogenation, hydroformylation, hydrosilylation, and hydrodesulfurization are all important examples.
- Hydrides are used in battery storage such as Hydride Batteries.
- Hydrides are also used in Drying Agents.
1. What are Hydride and Examples?
Hydrides are molecules and ions that have hydrogen covalently bonded to a less electronegative element. In hydride compounds the hydrogen atom is in form of hydrogen anion.
Various examples of hydrides are, LiH, NaH, H2O, etc.
2. What are Types of Hydrides?
Hydrides on the types of the bond they form with other atoms are categorized into three types that are,
- Ionic Hydride
- Covallent Hydride
- Metallic Hydride
3. What happens when Ionic Hydride reacts with Water?
When an ionic hydride reacts with water it form hydrogen gas and apart form this a base is also formed.
4. What is Hydrides and its Types Class 11?
Hyrogen anion reacts with less electronegative elements to form compounds called hydrides. These compound are categorized into three types that are, Ionic or Saline Hydrides, Covalent Hydrides, and Metallic Hydrides.
5. Why is it called Hydride?
These compounds are called hydride because in all these compound the oxidation number of hydrogen is -1.
6. Is NH3 a hydride?
Yes, NH3 or ammonia is a hydride of Nitrogen. It is an example of Covalent Hydride.
7. Is HCl a hydrides?
Yes, HCl or Hydrogen Chloride is a hydride of Chlorine. It is an example of Covalent Hydride.
8. What is Hydride Ion?
Hydride ion is also called Hydrogen Ion and it is represented as, H–.
9. What are Hydrides and Halides?
Hydrides are Hydrogen anion and it is represented as H– and Halides are compounds of Halogens that are chemically bonded with other atom.
10. What is Hydrides Formula?
The hydride formula of any compound is, MHx where M is less electronegative element and x is the oxidation number of M.
11. What are Hydrides of Nitrogen?
Hydrides of Nitrogen are compounds with Nitrogen as cation and hydrogen as anion. The examples of Nitrogen Hydrides include NH3 and N2H4
12. What are Hydrides of Boron?
Hydrides of Boron are compounds with Boron as cation and hydrogen as anion. Examples of Hydride of Boron include BH3 called as Borane
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