JavaScript is a high level, dynamically typed object-oriented programming language. An “out of memory” error is thrown when the program exceeds the available memory and causes overflow. It may also be caused due to an object that is too long or requires memory greater than it is allocated. Since everything in JavaScript is an object and objects are stored in heap, we often come across “heap out of memory” error while executing JavaScript programs.

Let us take a very common example of a program that determines the prime factors of a large number say 10^9 order. The way to overcome the problem of memory leakage is to use an algorithm that does not require to loop through the end of the number to find the prime factors.

**Algorithm:** The function **primeFactors()** accepts an argument *num* which is the original number to be factorized. An empty array is declared which will store the prime factors. The outer *for* loop loops from *i=2* till *i=sqrt(num)*. If the number is divided by the current value of *i*, the current value of *i* is pushed into the array. Since we are only concerned with finding distinct prime factors we push the factor into the array first and then keep dividing the number by *i* until it is no longer divisible and then it breaks the *while* loop with a reduced value for *num*. The *for* loop completes and the final value of *num* is checked. If the value of *num* is greater than 2 then it is the largest prime factor and is pushed into the array.

**Example 1:**

## Javascript

`function` `primeFactors(num) { ` ` ` `var` `prime = []; ` ` ` `for` `(i = 2; i * i <= num; ++i) { ` ` ` `if` `(num % i === 0) { ` ` ` ` ` `// Prime factor found ` ` ` `prime.push(i); ` ` ` `while` `(num % i === 0) { ` ` ` `num /= i; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `if` `(num > 2) { ` ` ` ` ` `// Largest prime factor ` ` ` `prime.push(num); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `return` `prime; ` `} ` ` ` `console.log(primeFactors(992474117)); ` |

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**Output:**

[ 23719, 41843 ]

**Summary:**

*num=992474117*- Prime array is declared
- for loop runs from
*i=2*to*i=31503* -
*i=23719*divides*num*with*rem=0*and 23719 is also a prime number,

hence it is pushed into the array. *num/i = 41843*thus*num= 41843*, is also a prime number which is not divisible by any number

within the range of*i**num>2*and is the largest prime factor hence it is pushed into the array.

**Example 2:**

## Javascript

`function` `primeFactors(num) { ` ` ` `var` `prime = []; ` ` ` `for` `(i = 2; i * i <= num; ++i) { ` ` ` `if` `(num % i === 0) { ` ` ` `// prime factor found ` ` ` `prime.push(i); ` ` ` `while` `(num % i === 0) { ` ` ` `num /= i; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `if` `(num > 2) { ` ` ` ` ` `//largest prime factor ` ` ` `prime.push(num); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `return` `prime; ` `} ` `console.log(primeFactors(1000000000000000000)); ` |

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**Output:**

[ 2, 5 ]

**Summary:**

*num=1000000000000000000*is an even number and is divisible by 2.- 2 is pushed into the array and we keep dividing the current value of
*num*by 2 until it is no longer divisible. - Looping through the range of
*i*, the next prime number is 5 which is pushed into the array. - After the completion of the
*for*loop*num=0*and all the prime factors have been stored.