Given a dictionary that contains mapping of employee and his manager as a number of (employee, manager) pairs like below.

{ "A", "C" }, { "B", "C" }, { "C", "F" }, { "D", "E" }, { "E", "F" }, { "F", "F" } In this example C is manager of A, C is also manager of B, F is manager of C and so on.

Write a function to get no of employees under each manager in the hierarchy not just their direct reports. It may be assumed that an employee directly reports to only one manager. In the above dictionary the root node/ceo is listed as reporting to himself.

Output should be a Dictionary that contains following.

A - 0 B - 0 C - 2 D - 0 E - 1 F - 5

Source: Microsoft Interview

This question might be solved differently but i followed this and found interesting, so sharing:

1. Create a reverse map with Manager->DirectReportingEmployee combination. Off-course employee will be multiple so Value in Map is List of Strings. "C" --> "A", "B", "E" --> "D" "F" --> "C", "E", "F" 2. Now use the given employee-manager map to iterate and at the same time use newly reverse map to find the count of employees under manager. Let the map created in step 2 be 'mngrEmpMap' Do following for every employee 'emp'. a) If 'emp' is not present in 'mngrEmpMap' Count under 'emp' is 0 [Nobody reports to 'emp'] b) If 'emp' is present in 'mngrEmpMap' Use the list of direct reports from map 'mngrEmpMap' and recursively calculate number of total employees under 'emp'.

A trick in step 2.b is to use memorization(Dynamic programming) while finding number of employees under a manager so that we don’t need to find number of employees again for any of the employees. In the below code populateResultUtil() is the recursive function that uses memoization to avoid re-computation of same results.

Below is Java implementation of above ides

`// Java program to find number of persons under every employee ` `import` `java.util.ArrayList; ` `import` `java.util.HashMap; ` `import` `java.util.List; ` `import` `java.util.Map; ` ` ` `public` `class` `NumberEmployeeUnderManager ` `{ ` ` ` `// A hashmap to store result. It stores count of employees ` ` ` `// under every employee, the count may by 0 also ` ` ` `static` `Map<String,Integer> result = ` ` ` `new` `HashMap<String, Integer>(); ` ` ` ` ` `// Driver function ` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `Map<String, String> dataSet = ` `new` `HashMap<String, String>(); ` ` ` `dataSet.put(` `"A"` `, ` `"C"` `); ` ` ` `dataSet.put(` `"B"` `, ` `"C"` `); ` ` ` `dataSet.put(` `"C"` `, ` `"F"` `); ` ` ` `dataSet.put(` `"D"` `, ` `"E"` `); ` ` ` `dataSet.put(` `"E"` `, ` `"F"` `); ` ` ` `dataSet.put(` `"F"` `, ` `"F"` `); ` ` ` ` ` `populateResult(dataSet); ` ` ` `System.out.println(` `"result = "` `+ result); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// This function populates 'result' for given input 'dataset' ` ` ` `private` `static` `void` `populateResult(Map<String, String> dataSet) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// To store reverse of original map, each key will have 0 ` ` ` `// to multiple values ` ` ` `Map<String, List<String>> mngrEmpMap = ` ` ` `new` `HashMap<String, List<String>>(); ` ` ` ` ` `// To fill mngrEmpMap, iterate through the given map ` ` ` `for` `(Map.Entry<String,String> entry: dataSet.entrySet()) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `String emp = entry.getKey(); ` ` ` `String mngr = entry.getValue(); ` ` ` `if` `(!emp.equals(mngr)) ` `// excluding emp-emp entry ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// Get the previous list of direct reports under ` ` ` `// current 'mgr' and add the current 'emp' to the list ` ` ` `List<String> directReportList = mngrEmpMap.get(mngr); ` ` ` ` ` `// If 'emp' is the first employee under 'mgr' ` ` ` `if` `(directReportList == ` `null` `) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `directReportList = ` `new` `ArrayList<String>(); ` ` ` `// add a new entry for the mngr with empty directReportList ` ` ` `mngrEmpMap.put(mngr, directReportList); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `directReportList.add(emp); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Now use manager-Emp map built above to populate result ` ` ` `// with use of populateResultUtil() ` ` ` ` ` `// note- we are iterating over original emp-manager map and ` ` ` `// will use mngr-emp map in helper to get the count ` ` ` `for` `(String mngr: dataSet.keySet()) ` ` ` `populateResultUtil(mngr, mngrEmpMap); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// This is a recursive function to fill count for 'mgr' using ` ` ` `// mngrEmpMap. This function uses memoization to avoid re- ` ` ` `// computations of subproblems. ` ` ` `private` `static` `int` `populateResultUtil(String mngr, ` ` ` `Map<String, List<String>> mngrEmpMap) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `int` `count = ` `0` `; ` ` ` ` ` `// means employee is not a manager of any other employee ` ` ` `if` `(!mngrEmpMap.containsKey(mngr)) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `result.put(mngr, ` `0` `); ` ` ` `return` `0` `; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// this employee count has already been done by this ` ` ` `// method, so avoid re-computation ` ` ` `else` `if` `(result.containsKey(mngr)) ` ` ` `count = result.get(mngr); ` ` ` ` ` `else` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `List<String> directReportEmpList = mngrEmpMap.get(mngr); ` ` ` `count = directReportEmpList.size(); ` ` ` `for` `(String directReportEmp: directReportEmpList) ` ` ` `count += populateResultUtil(directReportEmp, mngrEmpMap); ` ` ` ` ` `result.put(mngr, count); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` `return` `count; ` ` ` `} ` `} ` |

*chevron_right*

*filter_none*

**Output:**

result = {A=0, B=0, C=2, D=0, E=1, F=5}

This article is contributed by **Chandan Prakash**. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above

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