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# Effect of Change of Temperature

On the basis of interparticle forces and particle arrangement, matter can be characterized as solid, liquid, or gas. By varying the pressure and temperature, these three types of matter can be interconverted. By raising the temperature of ice, for example, it can be transformed from a solid to a liquid. A change of condition refers to a physical change in a matter. They are reversible changes that do not involve any changes to the chemical composition of the matter. State transitions include deposition, melting, sublimation, freezing, vaporization, and condensation.

### Effect of Change of Temperature on Matter

The kinetic energy of matter particles increases as temperature rises, and they begin to vibrate at a higher frequency. As a result, the interparticle force of attraction between particles decreases, and particles become unattached from their positions and free to travel.

The condition of matter begins to alter as a result. Liquids are formed when solids undergo a phase transition. Liquids, too, go through a phase change to become gases. The processes related to the change of state of matter due to temperature i.e., melting, boiling, etc. are mentioned below.

Effect of Change of Temperature on Matter

Melting

Melting is a physical process that causes a matter’s phase change from solid to liquid. When the internal energy of solid increases, usually due to the application of heat or pressure, the temperature of the matter rises to the melting point. Melting is the transformation of a solid into a liquid. The melting point is the temperature at which something melts.

For example: When ice cubes are removed from the freezer and brought to room temperature, they turn into a liquid. As a result, the ice cube melts and turns into water.

Melting of Ice into Water

How does melting occur?

When a solid is heated, it transforms into a liquid. In a solid, the particles gather enough energy to overcome the bonding forces that keep them together. During melting, particles usually begin to move about, keeping close to their neighbours, before moving more freely. The temperature at which this transition takes place in pure substances is known as the melting point of the material.

Freezing

Freezing refers to the transformation of liquid water into solid ice. Freezing is a phase transition in which a liquid becomes a solid when its temperature falls below its freezing point. The solidification phase change of a liquid, usually owing to cooling, is defined as freezing. The freezing point is the temperature at which liquid becomes solid.

For example: Water in an ice cube tray solidifies when maintained in the freezer. As a result, the water freezer is used to make ice cubes.

Freezing of Water into Ice

How does freezing occur?

When a liquid cools and solidifies, it is called freezing. A solid is formed when the particles in a liquid cease moving around and settle into a stable configuration. This is known as freezing, and it happens at the same temperature as the freezing point.

Boiling

Boiling is the fast evaporation of a liquid that occurs when it is heated to its boiling point, which is the temperature at which the liquid’s vapour pressure equals the surrounding atmosphere’s pressure. Boiling is the transformation of a liquid substance into a gas when heated rapidly. The boiling point is the temperature at which something begins to boil.

For example: “Boiling of water” refers to the quick transformation of water into steam or water vapour when heated.

Boiling of Water

How does boiling occur?

When particles in a liquid gather enough energy to overcome the bonding forces that hold them loosely together in the liquid, they boil and become free, fast-moving individual particles in a gas. The temperature at which this transition takes place in pure substances is known as the boiling point of the material.

Condensation

Condensation is the process of changing the physical state of matter from gas to liquid. It is the inverse of vaporization. The term is most commonly used to describe the water cycle.

For example: The existence of water droplets on the surface of a glass containing cold water is due to the fact that when airborne water vapour collides with the cold glass of water, it loses its energy and condenses to a liquid state.

How does condensation occur?

When a gas is cooled, the particles stop moving around as quickly and become a liquid. Condensation is a process that happens at the same temperature as boiling. As a result, a substance’s boiling point and condensation point are the same temperatures.

Sublimation

Sublimation is the process of a substance going from a solid to a gaseous state without transitioning to a liquid state (or vice versa). Sublimation is the term used to define the process of the water cycle to describe the process of snow and ice converting into water vapour in the air without first melting into water.

For example: When dry ice (a frozen form of carbon dioxide) is exposed to air, it instantly transforms from a solid to a gaseous state, which is visible as fog.

How does sublimation occur?

The change in state occurs when a solid goes directly to a gas called “sublimation” it does not occur at any particular temperature but varies in rate with temperature. For a solid to sublime, individual particles on the surface of the solid obtain enough energy from their surroundings to jump off the surface of the solid and become individual gas particles.

### Sample Questions

Question 1: What is Diffusion?

Diffusion is the process of a substance mixing with another substance due to the motion or movement of its particles. It is one of the material’s qualities. The process of one substance diffusing into another continues until a homogeneous mixture is achieved. In gases, liquids, and solids, diffusion occurs.

Question 2: What is Evaporation?

Evaporation is the process of converting a liquid into a vapour (or gas) at its boiling point. In a liquid, certain particles always have greater kinetic energy than others. As a result, the fast-moving particles of a liquid are continually leaving and forming vapour or gas. Evaporation is influenced by temperature, liquid surface area, humidity, and wind speed.

Question 3: What is the Effect of Change of Pressure on the matter?

The physical condition of matter can also be altered by varying the pressure applied to it. By exerting pressure and lowering the temperature, gases can be liquefied. A gas is compressed when a high pressure is applied to it, and when the temperature is lowered, it is changed to a liquid. As a result, we may argue that gases can be compressed and cooled into liquids.

Question 4: What is Latent heat of fusion?