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Different Servers in Node.js

  • Last Updated : 01 Sep, 2020

Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform runtime environment for executing JavaScript code outside a browser. You need to remember that NodeJS is not a framework and it’s not a programming language. Most of the people are confused and understand it’s a framework or a programming language. We often use Node.js for building back-end services like APIs like Web App or Mobile App.

There are many ways to create a server and even node.js has its own inbuilt server ‘http’. Some of them are mentioned below:

1. Creating Server using ‘http‘ Module:

Import http module: Import http module and store returned HTTP instance into a variable.

Syntax:



var http = require("http");

Creating and Binding Server: Create a server instance using createServer() method and bind it to some port using listen() method.

Syntax:

const server = http.createServer().listen(port)

Parameter: This method (listen()) accepts a single parameter as mentioned above and described below:

  • port <Number>: Ports are in the range 1024 to 65535 containing both registered and Dynamic ports.

Below example illustrate the use of http module in Node.js.

Example: Filename: index.js




// Node.js program to create 
// http server 
  
// Using require to access http module 
const http = require("http");
  
// Port number
const PORT = process.env.PORT || 2020;
  
// Creating server
const server = http.createServer(
   // Server listening on port 2020
   function (req, res) {
      res.write('Hello geeksforgeeks!'); 
      // Write a response to the client
      res.end(); 
   }
)
.listen(PORT, error => {
  // Prints in console
  console.log(`Server listening on port ${PORT}`)
});

Run index.js file using following command:

node index.js

Output:

Server listening on port 2020



Now type http://127.0.0.1:2020/ OR http://localhost:2020 in a web browser to see the output.

2. Creating Server using ‘https‘ Module:

Note: In order to create an HTTPS server, we need SSL key and certificate, and built-in https Node.js module.

Import https module: Import https module and store returned HTTP instance into a variable.

Syntax:

var https = require("https");

Creating and Binding Server: Create a server instance using createServer() method and bind it to some port using listen() method.

Syntax:

const server = https.createServer(options, 
            onResponseCallback).listen(port)

Parameter: This method accepts three parameters as mentioned above and described below:

  • options <key, certi>: It includes key and certificate passed.
  • onResponseCallback <Callback>: It is a callback function which is called in response of createServer.
  • port <Number>: Ports are in the range 1024 to 65535 containing both registered and Dynamic ports.

Below example illustrate the use of https module in Node.js.

Example: Filename: index.js






// Node.js program to create 
// https server 
  
// Using require to access https module 
var https = require('https');
var fs = require('fs');
const port= 8000;
  
var options = {
  
  // Note: We require SSL and certificate
  // to create https servers  
  key: fs.readFileSync('key.pem'),
  cert: fs.readFileSync('cert.pem')
};
  
https.createServer(options, function (req, res) {
  
  // Returns the status
  res.writeHead(200);
  res.end("Hello GeeksforGeeks");
}).listen(port);

Run index.js file using the following command:

node index.js

Output:

Hello GeeksforGeeks

Now the server is set up and started, we can get the file by:

curl -k https://localhost:8000

Now type https://127.0.0.1:8000/ OR https://localhost:8000 in a web browser to see the output.

Example: Filename: index.js




// Node.js program to get the response  
// from https server 
  
// Using require to access http module 
const https = require('https');
  
https.get('https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/', (res) => {
  
  // Printing status code
  console.log('statusCode:', res.statusCode);
  
  // Printing headers
  console.log('headers:', res.headers);
  
}).on('error', (e) => {
  console.log(e);
});

Run index.js file using the following command:

node index.js

Output:

>> statusCode: 200

>> headers: { server: ‘Apache’, ……… ‘server-timing’: ‘cdn-cache; desc=HIT, edge; dur=1’}



3. Creating Server using ‘Express’ Module: In order to use the express module, we need to install the NPM (Node Package Manager) and the following modules (on cmd).

// Creates package.json file
>> npm init

// Installs express module
>> npm install express --save   OR
>> npm i express -s 

Import express module: Import express module and store returned instance into a variable.

Syntax:

var express = require("express");

Creating Server: The above syntax calls the “express()” function and creates a new express application which gets stored inside the app variable.

Syntax:

const app = express();   
// OR by Importing and creating express application
var express = require("express")(); 

Sending and listening to the response: It communicates the request and response with the client and the server. It requires PORT <number> and IP <number> to communicate. 

app.listen(PORT, IP, Callback);

Parameter: This method accepts three parameters as mentioned above and described below.

  • PORT <Number>: Ports are the endpoints of communication which helps to communicate with the client and the server.
  • IP <Number>: IPs represent IPv4 or IPv6 address of a host or a device.
  • Callback <Function>: It accepts a function.

The below example illustrates the Express.js module in Node.js.

Example: Filename: index.js




// Node.js program to create server 
// with help of Express module
  
// Importing express 
const express = require('express');
  
// Creating new express app 
const app = express();
  
// PORT configuration
const PORT = process.env.PORT || 2020;
  
// IP configuration
const IP = process.env.IP || 2021;
  
// Create a route for the app
app.get('/', (req, res) => {
  res.send('Hello Vikas_g from geeksforgeeks!');
});
  
// Create a route for the app
app.get('*', (req, res) => {
  res.send('OOPS!! The link is broken...');
});
  
// Server listening to requests
app.listen(PORT, IP, () => {
  console.log(`The Server is running at: 
          http://localhost:${PORT}/`);
});

Run index.js file using the following command:



node index.js

Output:

The Server is running at: http://localhost:2020

Now type http://127.0.0.1:2020/ OR http://localhost:2020/ in a web browser to see the output.

4. Creating Server using ‘Hapi’ Module: In order to use the hapi module, we need to install the NPM (Node Package Manager) and the following modules (on cmd).

// creates package.json file
>> npm init 

// Installs hapi module
>> npm install @hapi/hapi --save 

Import hapi module: Import hapi module and store returned instance into a variable.

Syntax:

var Hapi = require("@hapi/hapi");

Creating Server: The above syntax imports the “express()” module and now it creates a server. It communicates the request and response with the client and the server. It requires PORT <number> and host <string> to communicate.

Syntax:

const server = Hapi.server({port: 2020, host: 'localhost'});

Parameter: This method accepts three parameters as mentioned above and described below.

  • PORT <Number>: Ports are the endpoints of communication which helps to communicate with the client and the server.
  • HOST <String>: It it the name of the host.

The below example illustrates the Hapi module in Node.js.

Example: Filename: index.js




// Node.js programe to create server
// using hapi module
  
// Importing hapi module
const Hapi = require('@hapi/hapi');
  
    // Creating Server
    const server = Hapi.server({
        port: 2020,
        host: 'localhost'
    });
  
    // Creating route
    server.route({
        method: 'GET',
        path: '/',
        handler: (request, hnd) => {
            return 'Hello GeeksForGeeks!';
        }
    });
  
const start = async () => {
  await server.start();
    console.log('Server running at', server.info.uri);
};
  
process.on('unhandledRejection', (err) => {
    console.log(err);
    process.exit(1);
});
  
start();

Run index.js file using the following command:

node index.js

Output:

Server running at: http://localhost:2020

Now type http://localhost:2020/ in a web browser to see the output.

5. Creating Server using ‘Koa’ Module: In order to use the Koa module, we need to install the NPM (Node Package Manager) and the following modules (on cmd).

// Creates package.json file
>> npm init 

// Installs express module
>> npm install koa --save  OR
>> npm i koa -s 

Import express module: Import koa module and store returned instance into a variable.

Syntax:

// Importing koa module
var koa = require("koa"); 

Creating Server: The above syntax imports the koa module and creates a new koa application which gets stored inside the app variable.

Syntax:

// Creating koa application
const app = new koa();  

Sending and listening to the response: It communicates the request and response with the client and the server. It requires PORT <number> and IP <number> to communicate.



app.listen(PORT, IP, Callback);

Parameter: This method accepts three parameters as mentioned above and described below.

  • PORT <Number>: Ports are the endpoints of communication which helps to communicate with the client and the server.
  • IP <Number>: IPs represent IPv4 or IPv6 address of a host or a device.
  • Callback <Function>: It accepts a function.

The below example illustrates the Koa module in Node.js.

Example: Filename: index.js




// Node.js program to create server 
// with help of Koa module
  
// Importing koa 
const koa = require('koa');
  
// Creating new koa app
const app = new koa();
  
// PORT configuration
const PORT = process.env.PORT || 2020;
  
// IP configuration
const IP = process.env.IP || 2021;
  
app.use(function *(){
  this.body = "Hello GeeksForGeeks!";
});
  
// Server listening to requests
app.listen(PORT, IP, ()=>{
    console.log("Server started at port", PORT);
});

Run index.js file using the following command:

node index.js

Output:

The Server is running at port 2020

Now type http://127.0.0.1:2020/ OR http://localhost:2020/ in a web browser to see the output.




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