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Difference Between MVP and MVVM Architecture Pattern in Android

Last Updated : 17 May, 2024
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Developing an android application by applying a software architecture pattern is always preferred by developers. An architecture pattern gives modularity to the project files and assures that all the codes get covered in Unit testing. It makes the task easy for developers to maintain the software and to expand the features of the application in the future. MVP (Model — View — Presenter) and Model — View — ViewModel (MVVM) are the two most popular industry-recognized android architectures among developers.

The Model — View — Presenter (MVP) Pattern

MVP architecture pattern provides an easy way to structure the project codes. The reason why MVP is widely accepted is that it provides modularity, testability, and a more clean and maintainable codebase. It is composed of the following three components:

  • Model: Layer for storing data. It is responsible for handling the domain logic(real-world business rules) and communication with the database and network layers.
  • View: UI(User Interface) layer. It provides the visualization of the data and keep a track of the user’s action in order to notify the Presenter.
  • Presenter: Fetch the data from the model and applies the UI logic to decide what to display. It manages the state of the View and takes actions according to the user’s input notification from the View.

The Model — View — Presenter (MVP) Pattern

The Model — View — ViewModel (MVVM) Pattern

MVVM pattern has some similarities with the MVP(Model — View — Presenter) design pattern as the Presenter role is played by the ViewModel. However, the drawbacks of the MVP pattern have been solved by MVVM. It suggests separating the data presentation logic(Views or UI) from the core business logic part of the application. The separate code layers of MVVM are:

  • Model: This layer is responsible for the abstraction of the data sources. Model and ViewModel work together to get and save the data.
  • View: The purpose of this layer is to inform the ViewModel about the user’s action. This layer observes the ViewModel and does not contain any kind of application logic.
  • ViewModel: It exposes those data streams which are relevant to the View. Moreover, it serves as a link between the Model and the View.

The Model — View — ViewModel (MVVM) Pattern

Difference Between MVP and MVVM Design Pattern

MVP(Model View Presenter)

MVVM(Model View ViewModel)

It resolves the problem of having a dependent View by using Presenter as a communication channel between Model and View.  This architecture pattern is more event-driven as it uses data binding and thus makes easy separation of core business logic from the View.
The one-to-one relationship exists between the Presenter and the View. Multiple View can be mapped with single ViewModel.
In this, observables are not needed as a Presenter layer. In this, observables are needed due to the absence of Presenter layer.
User interface is used more in MVP. There is no user interface in MVVM.
The architecture is heavyweight. The architecture is lightweight as compared to MVP.
Testing is done easily as business logic and UI are separate. Testing is difficult as Business logic and UI are not separate.
In this case, debugging is easy. In this case, debugging is not easy.
The Presenter has knowledge about the View. ViewModel has no reference to the View.
Model layer returns the response of the user’s input to the Presenter which forwards it to View. After performing operations according to the user’s input, the Model layer returns the response to the View.
Presenter handles the application flow and the View is the actual application. ViewModel is the actual application and View is the interface for the user in order to interact with the app.
The project file will contain more classes as well as code. The Project file will contain more classes but less code per class.
Maintenance is not ensured in the architecture. Maintenance of the layers is very good.
Ideal for simple and complex applications. Not ideal for small-scale projects.
Core testing is not done in MVP Core testing is done in MVVM.
Easy to carry out Unit testing but a tight bond of View and Presenter can make it slightly difficult. Unit testability is highest in this architecture.
It does not work well with android applications or software. It works extremely well with android applications or software.

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