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Design Principles in System Design

Last Updated : 02 Aug, 2023
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Design Principles in System Design are a set of considerations that form the basis of any good System. But the question now arises why use Design Principles in System Design? Design Principles help teams with decision-making, and is a multi-disciplinary field that involves trade-off analysis, balancing conflicting needs, and making decisions about design choices that will impact the overall system.

Some of the most common Design Principles in System Design are:

  1. Separation of Concerns
  2. Encapsulation and Abstraction
  3. Loose Coupling and High Cohesion
  4. Scalability and Performance
  5. Resilience to Fault Tolerance
  6. Security and Privacy
Design-Principles

Design Principles in System Design

Let us explain each design principle to get a better understanding of the same as follows:

1. Separation of concerns

Fundamental design principles that encourage code organization and maintainability include modularity and separation of concerns. Developers can concentrate on particular parts of a system independently by breaking it up into smaller, self-contained modules, making the system simpler to comprehend, test, and alter. Each module must have a clearly defined role that encompasses proper functionality and reduces reliance on other modules. This makes it possible to scale or replace particular components without having an adverse effect on the system as a whole, and it also makes maintenance easier.

2. Encapsulation and Abstraction

Design approaches that support information hiding and minimize complexity include abstraction and encapsulation. Encapsulation includes combining data and behavior into a single object (class, module, etc.), whereas abstraction entails building simplified and logical representations of complex things. and revealing.

Note: Fault activity is not detected here so do we will propose scalability measures in order to understand design principles better.

3. Loose Coupling and High Cohesion

As we know, Coupling refers to the degree of interdependence between software modules. High coupling means that modules are closely connected and changes in one module may affect other modules. Low coupling means that modules are independent and changes in one module have little impact on other modules. It is of two types:

  • Loose coupling
  • Tight coupling

Similarly, Cohesion refers to the degree to which elements within a module work together to fulfill a single, well-defined purpose. High cohesion means that elements are closely related and focused on a single purpose, while low cohesion means that elements are loosely related and serve multiple purposes.

  • Low cohesion
  • High cohesion

Here while designing principles it is to make sure that coupling should be loose and cohesion should be high while designing flexible systems. With loose coupling, we are reducing dependencies between components by minimizing direct communication between them and especially relying on interfaces. Now with high cohesion, the functionality is confined within a module which ensures that components work together for a common goal ensuring reusability and understandability.

4. Scalability and Performance

Building systems that are intended to manage increasing workloads or vast amounts of data requires careful consideration of scalability and performance. System designers should take into account both horizontal scaling (adding more instances or nodes) and vertical scaling (raising the resources of a single node) to accomplish scalability. The workload can also be distributed and system responsiveness increased by using strategies like load balancing, caching, and asynchronous processing. To achieve optimum performance, it’s critical to spot possible bottlenecks early in the design phase and execute the necessary optimizations.

5. Resilience and Fault Tolerance

In order to guarantee system availability and reliability, it is crucial to design fault tolerance and resilience. Techniques like redundancy, replication, and fault detection algorithms are used in this. System downtime can be avoided or minimized by designing systems that can survive component failures and gracefully handle exceptions, hence minimizing the impact of failures. System resilience is further improved by putting backup and recovery procedures in place and conducting careful testing and monitoring.

6. Privacy and Security

In today’s linked world, security and privacy are crucial design issues. Security controls must be incorporated at every stage of the development process by system designers. This includes using methods to safeguard sensitive data and thwart unauthorized access, such as encryption, authentication, and access control systems.

Understanding the Design Principles involved in the System Design of a Transport System

Let us explore the design system of the transport system and see how design principles can be applied that enhance the user experience as discussed above. 

  • Simplicity:

The transport system should have a clear and easy design that is easy to understand. Clear and simple user-friendly leads to a simplified user experience. The best example of it is Google whose no ads are run over the search main page in order to keep it simple and minimalistic so a user-friendly interface is maintained.

  • Balance:

The system should aim for an equitable distribution of transport options across the city, taking into account elements such as demand, accessibility, and population density. This guarantees that various places are suitably supplied and avoids congestion or underuse of particular routes or modes.

  • Contrast:

To distinguish between different forms of transportation (such as buses, trains, and trams) or routes, contrast can be provided by visual cues and color coding. Users may rapidly find pertinent information and make decisions regarding their journey thanks to this.

  • Unification:

A transportation system should work to achieve unification by maintaining a unified visual identity across all touchpoints, such as cars, signage, and ticketing materials. Users can recognize and trust the system’s services more easily because of a consistent design that strengthens brand identification.

  • Functionality:

To maintain seamless operations and user pleasure, the system should put a high priority on functionality. This includes elements like dependable scheduling, seamless transitions between modes of transportation, infrastructure that is accessible to those with disabilities, and thoughtfully constructed platforms and waiting rooms.

  • Typography:

Signage, route maps, and other informational products within the transport system can all benefit from the application of typographic principles to improve readability and effectively transmit information. Clear communication with consumers is facilitated by legal typefaces, suitable font sizes, and acceptable spacing.



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