# Decimal Functions in Python | Set 1

Python in its definition provides certain methods to perform faster decimal floating point arithmetic using the module “decimal”.

Important operations on Decimals

1. sqrt() :- This function computes the square root of the decimal number.

2. exp() :- This function returns the e^x (exponent) of the decimal number.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of  ` `# sqrt() and exp() ` ` `  `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions ` `import` `decimal ` ` `  `# using exp() to compute the exponent of decimal number ` `a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``4.5``).exp() ` ` `  `# using sqrt() to compute the square root of decimal number ` `b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``4.5``).sqrt() ` ` `  `# printing the exponent ` `print` `(``"The exponent of decimal number is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a) ` ` `  `# printing the square root ` `print` `(``"The square root of decimal number is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(b) `

Output:

```The exponent of decimal number is : 90.01713130052181355011545675
The square root of decimal number is : 2.121320343559642573202533086
```

3. ln() :- This function is used to compute natural logarithm of the decimal number.

4. log10() :- This function is used to compute log(base 10) of a decimal number.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of  ` `# ln() and log10() ` ` `  `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions ` `import` `decimal ` ` `  `# using ln() to compute the natural log of decimal number ` `a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``4.5``).ln() ` ` `  `# using sqrt() to compute the log10 of decimal number ` `b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``4.5``).log10() ` ` `  `# printing the natural logarithm ` `print` `(``"The natural logarithm of decimal number is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a) ` ` `  `# printing the log10 ` `print` `(``"The log(base 10) of decimal number is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(b) `

Output:

```The natural logarithm of decimal number is : 1.504077396776274073373258352
The log(base 10) of decimal number is : 0.6532125137753436793763169118
```

5. as_tuple() :- Returns the decimal number as tuple containing 3 arguments, sign(0 for +, 1 for -), digits and exponent value.

6. fma(a,b) :- This “fma” stands for fused multiply and add. It computes (num*a)+b from the numbers in argument. No rounding of (num*a) takes place in this function.

Example :

```decimal.Decimal(5).fma(2,3) --> (5*2)+3 = 13
```

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of  ` `# as_tuple() and fma() ` ` `  `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions ` `import` `decimal ` ` `  `# using as_tuple() to return decimal number as tuple ` `a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``-``4.5``).as_tuple() ` ` `  `# using fma() to compute fused multiply and addition ` `b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``5``).fma(``2``,``3``) ` ` `  `# printing the tuple ` `print` `(``"The tuple form of decimal number is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a) ` ` `  `# printing the fused multiple and addition ` `print` `(``"The fused multiply and addition of decimal number is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(b) `

Output:

```The tuple form of decimal number is : DecimalTuple(sign=1, digits=(4, 5), exponent=-1)
The fused multiply and addition of decimal number is : 13
```

7. compare() :- This function is used to compare decimal numbers. Returns 1 if 1st Decimal argument is greater than 2nd, -1 if 1st Decimal argument is smaller than 2nd and 0 if both are equal.

8. compare_total_mag() :- Compares the total magnitute of decimal numbers. Returns 1 if 1st Decimal argument is greater than 2nd(ignoring sign), -1 if 1st Decimal argument is smaller than 2nd(ignoring sign) and 0 if both are equal(ignoring sign).

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of  ` `# compare() and compare_total_mag() ` ` `  `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions ` `import` `decimal ` ` `  `# Initializing decimal number ` `a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``9.53``) ` ` `  `# Initializing decimal number ` `b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``-``9.56``) ` ` `  `# comparing decimal numbers using compare() ` `print` `(``"The result of comparison using compare() is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a.compare(b)) ` ` `  `# comparing decimal numbers using compare_total_mag() ` `print` `(``"The result of comparison using compare_total_mag() is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a.compare_total_mag(b)) `

Output:

```The result of comparison using compare() is : 1
The result of comparison using compare_total_mag() is : -1
```

9. copy_abs() :- This function prints the absolute value of decimal argument.

10. copy_negate() :- This function prints the negation of decimal argument.

11. copy_sign() :- This function prints the first argument by copying the sign from 2nd argument.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of  ` `# copy_abs(),copy_sign() and copy_negate() ` ` `  `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions ` `import` `decimal ` ` `  `# Initializing decimal number ` `a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``9.53``) ` ` `  `# Initializing decimal number ` `b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``-``9.56``) ` ` `  `# printing absolute value using copy_abs() ` `print` `(``"The absolute value using copy_abs() is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(b.copy_abs()) ` ` `  `# printing negated value using copy_negate() ` `print` `(``"The negated value using copy_negate() is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(b.copy_negate()) ` ` `  `# printing sign effected value using copy_sign() ` `print` `(``"The sign effected value using copy_sign() is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a.copy_sign(b)) `

Output:

```The absolute value using copy_abs() is : 9.5600000000000004973799150320701301097869873046875
The negated value using copy_negate() is : 9.5600000000000004973799150320701301097869873046875
The sign effected value using copy_sign() is : -9.5299999999999993605115378159098327159881591796875
```

12. max() :- This function computes the maximum of two decimal numbers.

13. min() :- This function computes the minimum of two decimal numbers.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of  ` `# min() and max() ` ` `  `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions ` `import` `decimal ` ` `  `# Initializing decimal number ` `a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``9.53``) ` ` `  `# Initializing decimal number ` `b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``7.43``) ` ` `  `# printing minimum of both values ` `print` `(``"The minimum of two numbers is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a.``min``(b)) ` ` `  `# printing maximum of both values ` `print` `(``"The maximum of two numbers is : "``,end``=``"") ` `print` `(a.``max``(b)) `

Output:

```The minimum of two numbers is : 7.429999999999999715782905696
The maximum of two numbers is : 9.529999999999999360511537816
```

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