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Decimal Functions in Python | Set 2 (logical_and(), normalize(), quantize(), rotate() … )
• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 31 May, 2020

Some of the Decimal functions have been discussed in Set 1 below

Decimal Functions in Python | Set 1

1. logical_and() :- This function computes digit-wise logical “and” operation of the number. Digits can only have the values 0 or 1.

2. logical_or() :- This function computes digit-wise logical “or” operation of the number. Digits can only have the values 0 or 1.

3. logical_xor() :- This function computes digit-wise logical “xor” operation of the number. Digits can only have the values 0 or 1.

4. logical_invert() :- This function computes digit-wise logical “invert” operation of the number. Digits can only have the values 0 or 1.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# logical_and(), logical_or(), logical_xor()``# and logical_invert()`` ` `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions``import` `decimal`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``1000``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``1110``)`` ` `# printing logical_and of two numbers``print` `(``"The logical_and() of two numbers is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.logical_and(b))`` ` `# printing logical_or of two numbers``print` `(``"The logical_or() of two numbers is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.logical_or(b))`` ` `# printing exclusive or of two numbers``print` `(``"The exclusive or of two numbers is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.logical_xor(b))`` ` `# printing logical inversion of number``print` `(``"The logical inversion of number is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.logical_invert())`

Output:

```The logical_and() of two numbers is : 1000
The logical_or() of two numbers is : 1110
The exclusive or of two numbers is : 110
The logical inversion of number is : 1111111111111111111111110111
```

5. next_plus() :- This function returns the smallest number that can be represented, larger than the given number.

6. next_minus() :- This function returns the largest number that can be represented, smaller than the given number.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# next_plus() and next_minus()`` ` `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions``import` `decimal`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``101.34``)`` ` `# printing the actual decimal number``print` `(``"The original number is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a)`` ` `# printing number after using next_plus()``print` `(``"The smallest number larger than current number : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.next_plus())`` ` `# printing number after using next_minus()``print` `(``"The largest number smaller than current number : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.next_minus())`

Output:

```The original number is : 101.340000000000003410605131648480892181396484375
The smallest number larger than current number : 101.3400000000000034106051317
The largest number smaller than current number : 101.3400000000000034106051316
```

7. next_toward() :- This function returns the number nearest to the 1st argument in the direction of the second argument. In case Both the numbers are equal, returns the 2nd number with the sign of first number.

8. normalize() :- This function prints the number after erasing all the rightmost trailing zeroes in the number.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# next_toward() and normalize()`` ` `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions``import` `decimal`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``101.34``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``-``101.34``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``c ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``-``58.68``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``d ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``14.010000000``)`` ` `# printing the number using next_toward()``print` `(``"The number closest to 1st number in direction of second number : "``)``print` `(a.next_toward(c))`` ` `# printing the number using next_toward()``# when equal``print` `(``"The second number with sign of first number is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(b.next_toward(a))`` ` `# printing number after erasing rightmost trailing zeroes``print` `(``"Number after erasing rightmost trailing zeroes : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(d.normalize())`

Output:

```The number closest to 1st number in direction of second number :
101.3400000000000034106051316
The second number with sign of first number is : -101.3400000000000034106051316
Number after erasing rightmost trailing zeroes : 14.01
```

9. quantize() :- This function returns the 1st argument with the number of digits in decimal part(exponent) shortened by the number of digits in decimal part(exponent) of 2nd argument.

10. same_quantum() :- This function returns 0 if both the numbers have different exponent and 1 if both numbers have same exponent.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# quantize() and same_quantum()``  ` `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions``import` `decimal``  ` `# Initializing decimal number``a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``20.76548``)``  ` `# Initializing decimal number``b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``12.25``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``c ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``6.25``)`` ` `# printing quantized first number``print` `(``"The quantized first number is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.quantize(b))``  ` `# checking if both number have same exponent``if` `(b.same_quantum(c)):``       ``print` `(``"Both the numbers have same exponent"``)``else` `: ``print` `(``"Both numbers have different exponent"``)  `

Output:

```The quantized first number is : 20.77
Both the numbers have same exponent
```

11. rotate() :- This function rotates the first argument by the amount mentioned in the second argument. If the sign of second argument is positive, rotation is towards left, else the rotation is towards right. The sign of first argument is unchanged.

12. shift() :- This function shifts the first argument by the amount mentioned in the second argument. If the sign of second argument is positive, shifting is towards left, else the shifting is towards right. The sign of first argument is unchanged. Digit shifted are replaced by 0.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# rotate() and shift()``  ` `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions``import` `decimal``  ` `# Initializing decimal number``a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``2343509394029424234334563465``)`` ` `# using rotate() to rotate the first argument``# rotates to right by 2 positions``print` `(``"The rotated value is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.rotate(``-``2``))``  ` `# using shift() to shift the first argument``# rotates to left by 2 positions``print` `(``"The shifted value is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.shift(``2``))`

Output:

```The rotated value is : 6523435093940294242343345634
The shifted value is : 4350939402942423433456346500
```

13. remainder_near() :- Returns the value “1st – (n*2nd)” where n is the integer value nearest to the result of 1st/2nd. If 2 integers have exactly similar proximity, even one is choosen.

14. scaleb() :- This function shifts the exponent of 1st number by the value of second argument.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# remainder_near() and scaleb()``  ` `# importing "decimal" module to use decimal functions``import` `decimal``  ` `# Initializing decimal number``a ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``23.765``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``b ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``12``)`` ` `# Initializing decimal number``c ``=` `decimal.Decimal(``8``)`` ` `# using remainder_near to compute value``print` `(``"The computed value using remainder_near() is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(b.remainder_near(c))``  ` `# using scaleb() to shift exponont``print` `(``"The value after shifting exponent : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(a.scaleb(``2``))`

Output:

```The computed value using remainder_near() is : -4
The value after shifting exponent : 2376.500000000000056843418861
```

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