**Code Golf** in Python refers to attempting to solve a problem using the least amount of characters possible. Like in Golf, the low score wins, the fewest amount of characters “wins”.

Python is a fantastic language for code golfing due to backward compatibility, quirks, it being a high-level language, and all the coercion. So, here we will look at some Code golfing techniques in Python language.

## Using loops

**Collapse two numerical loops: **Suppose you are iterating over a matrix of **m rows** and **n columns** . Instead of two nested for loops, one for the row and one of the columns, it’s usually shorter to use a single loop to iterate over the m*n matrix.

**Original Code : **

m = n = 3 for i in range(m): for j in range(n): print(i, j)

**Golfed Code : **

m = n = 3 for i in range(m*n): print(i//n, i%n)

This technique is not limited to only two nested loops, we can even write the same loop for **3 or more nested loops**

m, n, o = 2, 3, 4 for k in range(m*n*o): print(k//n//o, k%(n*o), k%o)

## Using operators

**Addition or Subtraction by 1:**For integer n you can writeis equivalent to`-~n`

`n+1`

is equivalent to`~-n`

`n-1`

This works because the bit flip

equals`~x`

. This uses the same number of characters, but can indirectly cut spaces or parens for operator precedence.`-x-1`

**Membership in Set:**We write set in Python as S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. To check whether an element e exist in Set S or not we can check the condition as**{e}&S****Original Code:**S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} if 5 in S: print("Present") else: print("Absent")

**Golfed Code:**S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} if {5}&S: print("Present") else: print("Absent")

**Sibling of AND operator:**When we have two boolean or integer values,**a**and**b**, if we want to find out if both a and b are true, useinstead of`*`

.`and`

**Original Code:**

if a and b: print("geeks") else: print("geeksforgeeks")

**Golfed Code:**if a*b: print("geeks") else: print("geeksforgeeks")

**Sibling of OR operator:**When we have two boolean or integer values,**a**and**b**, if we want to find out if any one from a and b is true or both, useinstead of`|`

.`or`

**Original Code:**if a or b: print("geeks") else: print("geeksforgeeks")

**Golfed Code:**if a|b: print("geeks") else: print("geeksforgeeks")

**Use += instead of append:**Instead of using append for adding one item to an existing list, we can use`+=`

operator.**Original Code:**A.append(B)

**Golfed Code:**A+=B,

**Note:****B,**here creates a one-element tuple which can be used to extend A just like`[B] in A+=[B]`

.**Use += instead of extend:**Instead of using extend for mergind one list into another at the end, we can use`+=`

operator.**Original Code:**

A.extend(B)

**Golfed Code:**A+=B

**Magical Comparison Operators:**We face many situations in which we have to compare a single variable with different values, and generally we defend them by different comparisons and combining them with**AND**operator. But Python allows us to put all comparison operators in a single line without using the**AND**operator.

**Original Code:**if a>1 and a<10: print(a)

**Golfed Code:**if 1<a<10: print(a)

**Note:**We can use this technique for multiple variable also at the same time.

**Original Code:**if a > 10 and b > 10 and 30 > a and 50 > b: print(a)

**Golfed Code:**if 30 > a > 10 < b < 50: print(a)

## Using Functions

**Sibling of Floor function:**Suppose we want to find the floor value of a real number, we generally import floor function from math and then apply on the number. But we can simply apply the floor division with 1, which will give us a fruitful result.**Original Code:**from math import floor n = 3/2 print(floor(n))

**Golfed Code:**n = 3/2 print(n//1)

**Sibling of Ceil function:**Suppose we want to find the ceil value of a real number, we generally import ceil function from math and then apply on the number. But we can do this operation in a more beautiful manner by first multiplying with -1 and then apply floor division with 1 and again multiply with -1.**Original Code:**from math import ceil n = 3/2 print(ceil(n))

**Golfed Code:**n = 3/2 print(-(-n//1))

**Lambda functions**: Lambda definition does not include a “return” statement, it always contains an expression which is returned. We can also put a lambda definition anywhere a function is expected, and we don’t have to assign it to a variable at all. This is the simplicity of lambda functions.**Original Code:**def c(a): if a < 3: return a-5 else: return a+5

**Golfed Code:**c=lambda a:a<3and a-5or a+5

**To get the entire alphabet string:**We can use the map function of python to get the string of whole alphabet set.**Original code:**string = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz' or string = [chr(i+97)for i in range(26)]

**Golfed Code:**string = map(chr,range(97,123))

## Using indexing

**Indexing Technique for conditions:**When we have a certain condition which will give the answer in the form of small integers then we can use that in integer index in list or tuple to get our final answer.**Original Code:**if a<b:return a else:return b

**Golfed Code:**return (b, a)[a<b]

**Reverse the Sequence:**We can reverse any list sequence using the good alien smiley face.**Original Code:**string = 'geeksforgeeks' for i in range(len(string)-1,-1,-1): print(string[i])

**Golfed Code:**string = 'geeksforgeeks' for i in string[::-1]: print(i)

**Use ~ to index from the back of a list:**If L is a list, use`L[~i]`

to get the i’th element from the back. This is the i’th element of the reverse of L. The bit complement`~i`

equals`-i-1`

, and so fixes the off-by-one error from`L[-i]`

.**Original Code:**string = 'geeksforgeeks' for i in range(len(string)-1,-1,-1): print(string[i])

**Golfed Code:**for i in range(len(string)): print(string[~i])

**Print the items of the list:**We can print the items of a list by using theoperator with the name of the list instead of looping through the list.`*`

**Original Code:**A = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7] for i in A: print(i,end = ' ')

**Golfed Code:**A = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7] print(*A)

## Using assignment

**Assigning the same values to multiple variables:**We can assign the same value to multiple variables either in a single line or multiple lines.

**Original Code:**# multiple lines a = 0 b = 0 c = 0 # single line a,b,c = 0,0,0

**Golfed Code:**a = b = c = 0

**Assigning same or different characters to variable:**We can assign the same of different characters to multiple variables either in a single line or multiple lines.

**Original Code:**# multiple lines a = 'p' b = 'q' c = 'r' # single line a,b,c = 'p','q','r'

**Golfed Code:**a,b,c = 'pqr'

## Using conversion

**Converting iterables into the list:**Imagine you have any ordered iterable like a tuple or string but you want to convert it into a list, so you can do this with*****operator.**Original Code:**a = (2,3,5,7,11) x = list(a) a = 'geeksforgeek' x = list(a)

**Golfed Code:**a = (2,3,5,7,11) *x, = a a = 'geeksforgeeks' *x, = a

**Converting iterables into the Set:**Imagine you have any iterable like a list, tuple or string but you want to convert it into a Set, so you can do this with*****operator.**Originial Code:**a = (2,3,5,7,11) x = set(a) a = [2,3,5,7,11] x = set(a) a = 'geeksforgeeks' x = set(a)

**Golfed Code:**a = (2,3,5,7,11) x = {*a} a = [2,3,5,7,11] x = {*a} a = 'geeksforgeeks' x = {*a}

**Converting iterables into the Tuple:**Imagine you have any iterable like a list, set or string but you want to convert it into a Tuple, so you can do this with*****operator.**Originial Code:**a = (2,3,5,7,11) x = tuple(a) a = [2,3,5,7,11] x = tuple(a) a = 'geeksforgeeks' x = tuple(a)

**Golfed Code:**a = (2,3,5,7,11) x = (*a,) a = [2,3,5,7,11] x = (*a,) a = 'geeksforgeeks' x = (*a,)

## During joining of different iterables

**Joining multiple Lists:**We can join the multiple lists using**+**operator, but for code golfing we can do the same using*****operator.**Original Code:**T = [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] new_T = [1]+T+[10]

**Golfed Code:**T = [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] new_T = [1,*T,10]

**Joining multiple Tuples:**We can join the multiple tuples using**+**operator, but for code golfing we can do the same using*****operator.**Original Code:**T = (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) new_T = (1,)+T+(10,)

**Golfed Code:**T = (2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) new_T = (1,*T,10)

Attention geek! Strengthen your foundations with the **Python Programming Foundation** Course and learn the basics.

To begin with, your interview preparations Enhance your Data Structures concepts with the **Python DS** Course.