Calculate the difference between Consecutive pair of Elements of a Vector in R Programming – diff() Function

function in R Language is used to find the difference between each consecutive pair of elements of a vector.**diff()**

Syntax:diff(x, lag, differences)

Parameters:x:vector or matrixlag:period between elementsdifferences:Order of difference

**Example 1:**

`# R program to find the difference` `# between each pair of elements of a vector` ` ` `# Creating a vector` `x1 <` `-` `c(` `8` `, ` `2` `, ` `5` `, ` `4` `, ` `9` `, ` `6` `, ` `54` `, ` `18` `)` `x2 <` `-` `c(` `1` `:` `10` `)` `x3 <` `-` `c(` `-` `1` `:` `-` `8` `)` ` ` `# Calling diff() function` `diff(x1)` `diff(x2)` `diff(x3)` |

**Output:**

[1] -6 3 -1 5 -3 48 -36 [1] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 [1] -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

**Example 2:**

`# R program to find the difference` `# between each pair of elements of a vector` ` ` `# Creating a vector` `x1 <` `-` `c(` `8` `, ` `2` `, ` `5` `, ` `4` `, ` `9` `, ` `6` `, ` `54` `, ` `18` `)` `x2 <` `-` `c(` `1` `:` `10` `)` ` ` `# Calling diff() function` `diff(x1, lag ` `=` `2` `, differences ` `=` `1` `)` `diff(x2, lag ` `=` `1` `, differences ` `=` `2` `)` |

**Output:**

[1] -3 2 4 2 45 12 [1] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Here, in the above code, the ‘lag’ tells the period between values, i.e. **lag = 2** means, diff is calculated between 1st and 3rd value, 2nd and 4th values, etc. and ‘differences’ tells the order in which `diff()`

function is called i.e. **differences = 2** means `diff()`

function is called twice on the vector.