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Basics Of Python Modules

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 24 Jan, 2022
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A library refers to a collection of modules that together cater to a specific type of needs or application. Module is a file(.py file) containing variables, class definitions statements, and functions related to a particular task. Python modules that come preloaded with Python are called standard library modules. 
 

Creating our module

We will be creating a module named tempConversion.py that converts values from F to C and vice-versa.
 

Python3




# tempConversion.py to convert between
# between Fahrenheit and Centigrade
 
# function to convert F to C
def to_centigrade(x):
      return 5 * (x - 32) / 9.0
 
# function to convert C to F
def to_fahrenheit(x):
       return 9 * x / 5.0 + 32
 
# constants
 
# water freezing temperature(in Celsius)
FREEZING_C = 0.0 
 
# water freezing temperature(in Fahrenheit)    
FREEZING_F = 32.0     

Now save this python file and the module is created. This module can be used in other programs after importing it.
 

Importing a module

In python, in order to use a module, it has to be imported. Python provides multiple ways to import modules in a program : 
 

  1. To import the entire module : 
import module_name
  1. To import only a certain portion of the module : 
from module_name import object_name
  1. To import all the objects of the module : 
from module_name import *

 

Using an imported module

After importing the module, we can use any function/definition of the imported module as per the following syntax: 
 

module_name.function_name() 

This way of referring to the module‚Äôs object is called dot notation. 
If we import a function using from, there is no need to mention the module name and the dot notation to use that function.
Example 1 : Importing the whole module : 
 

Python3




# importing the module
import tempConversion
 
# using a function of the module
print(tempConversion.to_centigrade(12))
 
# fetching an object of the module
print(tempConversion.FREEZING_F)

Output : 
 

-11.11111111111111
32.0

Example 2 : Importing particular components of the module : 
 

Python3




# importing the to_fahrenheit() method
from tempConversion import to_fahrenheit
 
# using the imported method
print(to_fahrenheit(20))
 
# importing the FREEZING_C object
from tempConversion import FREEZING_C
 
# printing the imported variable
print(FREEZING_C)

Output : 
 

68.0
0.0

 

Python standard library functions

The python interpreter has a number of functions built into it that are always available. To use these built-in functions of python directly call the functions, like function_name(). Some built-in library functions are : input(), int(), float() etc
 

Python3




num = 5
print("Number entered = ", num)
 
# oct() converts to octal number-string
onum = oct(num)  
 
# hex() converts to hexadecimal number-string    
hnum = hex(num)    
    
print("Octal conversion yields", onum)
print("Hexadecimal conversion yields", hnum)
print(num)

Output : 
 

Number entered = 5
Octal conversion yields 0o5
Hexadecimal conversion yields 0x5
5

 


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