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Applications of Queue Data Structure

Last Updated : 28 Mar, 2023
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Introduction :

A queue is a linear data structure that follows the “first-in, first-out” (FIFO) principle. It is a collection of elements that supports two primary operations – enqueue and dequeue. In the enqueue operation, an element is added to the back of the queue, while in the dequeue operation, an element is removed from the front of the queue.

Queues are used to manage data flow and handle tasks in various applications, such as operating systems, network protocols, and data processing systems. They are also used to implement algorithms like breadth-first search, which involves exploring nodes in a graph level-by-level.

Queue is used when things don’t have to be processed immediately, but have to be processed in First In First Out order.

The basic operations of a queue include:

  1. Enqueue: Add an element to the back of the queue.
  2. Dequeue: Remove the element at the front of the queue.
  3. Peek: Return the element at the front of the queue without removing it.
  4. Size: Return the number of elements in the queue.
  5. isEmpty: Check if the queue is empty. 

Some common applications of Queue data structure :

  1.  Task Scheduling: Queues can be used to schedule tasks based on priority or the order in which they were received.
  2.  Resource Allocation: Queues can be used to manage and allocate resources, such as printers or CPU processing time.
  3.  Batch Processing: Queues can be used to handle batch processing jobs, such as data analysis or image rendering.
  4.  Message Buffering: Queues can be used to buffer messages in communication systems, such as message queues in messaging systems or buffers in computer networks.
  5. Event Handling: Queues can be used to handle events in event-driven systems, such as GUI applications or simulation systems.
  6. Traffic Management: Queues can be used to manage traffic flow in transportation systems, such as airport control systems or road networks.
  7. Operating systems: Operating systems often use queues to manage processes and resources. For example, a process scheduler might use a queue to manage the order in which processes are executed.
  8. Network protocols: Network protocols like TCP and UDP use queues to manage packets that are transmitted over the network. Queues can help to ensure that packets are delivered in the correct order and at the appropriate rate.
  9. Printer queues :In printing systems, queues are used to manage the order in which print jobs are processed. Jobs are added to the queue as they are submitted, and the printer processes them in the order they were received.
  10. Web servers: Web servers use queues to manage incoming requests from clients. Requests are added to the queue as they are received, and they are processed by the server in the order they were received.
  11. Breadth-first search algorithm: The breadth-first search algorithm uses a queue to explore nodes in a graph level-by-level. The algorithm starts at a given node, adds its neighbors to the queue, and then processes each neighbor in turn.

Useful Applications of Queue

  • When a resource is shared among multiple consumers. Examples include CPU scheduling, Disk Scheduling
  • When data is transferred asynchronously (data not necessarily received at the same rate as sent) between two processes. Examples include IO Buffers, pipes, etc. 

Applications of Queue in Operating systems:

  • Semaphores
  • FCFS ( first come first serve) scheduling, example: FIFO queue
  • Spooling in printers
  • Buffer for devices like keyboard
  • CPU Scheduling 
  • Memory management 

Applications of Queue in Networks:

Some other applications of Queue:

  • Applied as waiting lists for a single shared resource like CPU, Disk, and Printer.
  • Applied as buffers on MP3 players and portable CD players.
  • Applied on Operating system to handle the interruption.
  • Applied to add a song at the end or to play from the front.
  • Applied on WhatsApp when we send messages to our friends and they don’t have an internet connection then these messages are queued on the server of WhatsApp.
  • Traffic software ( Each  light gets on one by one after every time of interval of time.)

Issues in applications of Queue :

  1. Queue overflow: If a queue has a fixed size, it can become full, leading to a queue overflow. This can happen if elements are added to the queue faster than they are removed. To prevent overflow, some implementations use dynamic resizing or circular buffers.
  2. Queue underflow: If a queue is empty and an attempt is made to remove an element, this can lead to a queue underflow. This can happen if elements are removed from the queue faster than they are added. To prevent underflow, some implementations use sentinel values or null pointers to represent an empty queue.
  3. Blocking queues: In some applications, a queue may become blocked if it is full or empty. This can cause delays in processing or deadlock. To address this, some implementations use bounded queues or non-blocking queues.
  4. Priority inversion: In some applications, a higher priority element can get stuck behind a lower priority element in the queue. This can lead to priority inversion and result in reduced performance. To prevent this, some implementations use priority queues or multiple queues with different priorities.
  5. Synchronization issues: In concurrent applications, multiple threads may access the same queue simultaneously. This can lead to synchronization issues like race conditions, deadlocks, and livelocks. To address this, some implementations use locking mechanisms like mutexes or semaphores.
  6. Memory management: In some implementations, a queue may allocate and deallocate memory frequently, leading to memory fragmentation and reduced performance. To address this, some implementations use memory pools or pre-allocated buffers.

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