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Acetone Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 10 Mar, 2022

Acetone is a colorless liquid used in the production of plastics and other industrial products. Acetone formula (or Propanone) is given here both in organic form and in structural form, Acetone is the smallest and the simplest Ketone which is a flammable, colorless, and volatile liquid.

Acetone Formula

The chemical formula of Acetone is C3H6O which is also known as propanone. Acetone is found in the exhaust from vehicles, plants, trees, and forest fires.

It is also found in the urine and blood of the human body. Acetone is miscible in water, ether, ethanol and has a pungent, floral, or irritating smell. It is highly used as an antiseptic and solvent. Alchemists were the first to produce acetone and It is produced with the dry distillation of metal acetates. It is produced by propylene either by the direct or indirect method or we can say almost 83% of acetone is produced during the cumene process.

Structure of Acetone 

The chemical formula of Acetone consists of three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. It is considered as a ketone since there is a carbonyl group present in it. It is mainly used in medicine and in cosmetics. Acetone is mainly present in blood and urine. It is also an active ingredient in nail polish removers.

Acetone Chemical Formula = C3H6O

Structure of acetone C3H6O6

Preparation of Acetone 

In Industry 83% of acetone is produced by the cumene process. In this process, benzene is alkylated with propylene to produce cumene, which is oxidized by air to produce phenol and acetone.

Acetone preparation

Occurrence 

Acetone C3H6O naturally occurs in plants, trees, volcanic gases, forest fires, and as a product of the breakdown of body fat. It is also found in urine and blood, while the concentration may be higher in diabetic patients. We can find traces of it in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill sites. It is also found among the many products formed in the destructive distillation of materials like wood, sugar, cellulose, etc.

Properties of Acetone 

Chemical formulaC3H6O
Appearance of acetoneColorless liquid
Odor of acetonePungent, irritating, floral
Boiling Point of acetone56°C
Melting Point of acetone -95°C
Molecular mass of acetone58.08  g/mol
Density of acetone0.7845 g/cm3 (25°C)

Chemical properties Of Acetone 

  1. Acetone is a high level of miscibility in water, ethanol, ether, and methanol.
  2. It is also colorless at room temperature and very sensitive to heat, so acetone evaporates quickly when it is in contact with air or sunlight if not stored properly.
  3. Another property of acetone is that it is a very effective solvent for diluting a wide variety of dense chemicals. As it is highly volatile therefore it should be kept away from fire and high temperatures to reduce the potential for hazards.
  4. Acetone is completely stable in the environment. And its chemical properties change markedly when mixed with water, which can cause sudden explosions when stored in airtight containers for a long time due to the accumulation of gases.

Uses of Acetone

  1. Acetone is used as a solvent for synthetic fibers and plastics.
  2. It is used as a precursor for methyl methacrylate.
  3. It is used to prepare metal before painting.
  4. It is used in pharmaceutical industries in some drugs.
  5. It is volatile and hence used in the laboratory to rinse lab glassware.
  6. It is used as a drying agent.
  7. It is used in the defatting process.
  8. It is used in cosmetics such as nail polish remover.
  9. It is used in the treatment of acne.

Conceptual questions

Question 1: Explain the uses of Acetone?

Answer: 

Acetone is highly used as an industrial solvent. Acetone also serves as a precursor to methyl methacrylate. This process initiate with the conversion of acetone into acetone cyanohydrin.

It is a powerful solvent that is used as nail polish remover. Acetone is also effective for oil removal and preparing nail polish.

Question 2: Is acetone harmful?

Answer: 

Intake of acetone from moderate to high amounts of acetone for a short amount of time can irritate your nose, throat, lungs and eyes and also cause headaches, a faster pulse. some other causes are nausea, effects on the blood, passing out and possible coma, and a shorter menstrual cycle in women.

Question 3: Is acetone a better solvent than water?

Answer:    

Acetone is a good solvent because it has the ability to dissolve both polar and nonpolar substances ,Second, because of its miscible substance. Acetone has the ability to mix with water in all proportions.

Question 4: What is the chemical name and formula of Acetone? where acetone occurs?

Answer: 

The chemical formula of Acetone is C3H6O which is also known as propanone. It naturally occurs in plants, trees, volcanic gases, forest fires, and as a product of the breakdown of body fat. It is also found in urine and blood, while the concentration may be higher in diabetic patients. We can find the traces of it in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill sites. 

Question 5: Why Acetone is heavier than water?

Answer: 

It is heavier because It exists in liquid form at room temperature, but  it is less dense than about 1 g/mL of water at room temperature.

The density of acetone at room temperature is 0.788g/mL and which shows that per milliliter of liquid has a mass of 0.788 grams.

Question 6: How Acetone is helpful in electronics?

Answer:  

It is highly combustible, on the other hand It is a important substance that has been used to clean electronic equipment and gadgets. It is work as a solvent in many of the electronic devices as well as work as a cleansers. 

Question 7: Give two advantages and disadvantages of Acetone?

Answer: 

Advantages of acetone are:

  1. Acetone is green biodegradable solvent.
  2. It has the ability to recycle by evaporation.
  3. It has higher extraction efficiency for xanthophylls.

Disadvantages of acetone are:

  1. It is a highly flammable
  2. It has very adverse effects on human health
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