A Set is an unordered collection data type that is iterable, mutable, and has no duplicate elements. Python’s set class represents the mathematical notion of a set. The major advantage of using a set, as opposed to a list, is that it has a highly optimized method for checking whether a specific element is contained in the set. This is based on a data structure known as a hash table.

**Frozen Sets** Frozen sets are immutable objects that only support methods and operators that produce a result without a?ecting the frozen set or sets to which they are applied.

`# Python program to demonstrate differences ` `# between normal and frozen set ` ` ` `# Same as {"a", "b","c"} ` `normal_set ` `=` `set` `([` `"a"` `, ` `"b"` `,` `"c"` `]) ` ` ` `# Adding an element to normal set is fine ` `normal_set.add(` `"d"` `) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Normal Set"` `) ` `print` `(normal_set) ` ` ` `# A frozen set ` `frozen_set ` `=` `frozenset` `([` `"e"` `, ` `"f"` `, ` `"g"` `]) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Frozen Set"` `) ` `print` `(frozen_set) ` ` ` `# Uncommenting below line would cause error as ` `# we are trying to add element to a frozen set ` `# frozen_set.add("h") ` |

Output:

Normal Set set(['a', 'c', 'b', 'd']) Frozen Set frozenset(['e', 'g', 'f'])

**Methods for Sets**

**1. add(x) Method: **Adds the item x to set if it is not already present in the set.

people = {"Jay", "Idrish", "Archil"} people.add("Daxit")

-> This will add Daxit in people set.

2. **union(s) Method**: Returns a union of two set.Using the ‘|’ operator between 2 sets is the same as writing set1.union(set2)

people = {"Jay", "Idrish", "Archil"} vampires = {"Karan", "Arjun"} population = people.union(vampires)

OR

population = people|vampires

-> Set population set will have components of both people and vampire

3.** intersect(s) Method: **Returns an intersection of two sets.The ‘&’ operator comes can also be used in this case.

victims = people.intersection(vampires)

-> Set victims will contain the common element of people and vampire

**4. difference(s) Method: **Returns a set containing all the elements of invoking set but not of the second set. We can use ‘-‘ operator here.

safe = people.difference(vampires)

OR

safe = people – vampires

-> Set safe will have all the elements that are in people but not vampire

**5. clear() Method: **Empties the whole set.

victims.clear()

-> Clears victim set

However there are two major pitfalls in Python sets:

- The set doesn’t maintain elements in any particular order.
- Only instances of immutable types can be added to a Python set.

**Operators for Sets**

Sets and frozen sets support the following operators:

key in s # containment check

key not in s # non-containment check

s1 == s2 # s1 is equivalent to s2

s1 != s2 # s1 is not equivalent to s2

s1 <= s2 # s1is subset of s2 s1 < s2 # s1 is proper subset of s2 s1 >= s2 # s1is superset of s2

s1 > s2 # s1 is proper superset of s2

s1 | s2 # the union of s1 and s2

s1 & s2 # the intersection of s1 and s2

s1 – s2 # the set of elements in s1 but not s2

s1 ˆ s2 # the set of elements in precisely one of s1 or s2

Code Snippet to illustrate all Set operations in Python

`# Python program to demonstrate working# of ` `# Set in Python ` ` ` `# Creating two sets ` `set1 ` `=` `set` `() ` `set2 ` `=` `set` `() ` ` ` `# Adding elements to set1 ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `1` `, ` `6` `): ` ` ` `set1.add(i) ` ` ` `# Adding elements to set2 ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `3` `, ` `8` `): ` ` ` `set2.add(i) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Set1 = "` `, set1) ` `print` `(` `"Set2 = "` `, set2) ` `print` `(` `"\n"` `) ` ` ` `# Union of set1 and set2 ` `set3 ` `=` `set1 | set2` `# set1.union(set2) ` `print` `(` `"Union of Set1 & Set2: Set3 = "` `, set3) ` ` ` `# Intersection of set1 and set2 ` `set4 ` `=` `set1 & set2` `# set1.intersection(set2) ` `print` `(` `"Intersection of Set1 & Set2: Set4 = "` `, set4) ` `print` `(` `"\n"` `) ` ` ` `# Checking relation between set3 and set4 ` `if` `set3 > set4: ` `# set3.issuperset(set4) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Set3 is superset of Set4"` `) ` `elif` `set3 < set4: ` `# set3.issubset(set4) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Set3 is subset of Set4"` `) ` `else` `: ` `# set3 == set4 ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Set3 is same as Set4"` `) ` ` ` `# displaying relation between set4 and set3 ` `if` `set4 < set3: ` `# set4.issubset(set3) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Set4 is subset of Set3"` `) ` ` ` `print` `(` `"\n"` `) ` ` ` `# difference between set3 and set4 ` `set5 ` `=` `set3 ` `-` `set4 ` `print` `(` `"Elements in Set3 and not in Set4: Set5 = "` `, set5) ` `print` `(` `"\n"` `) ` ` ` `# checkv if set4 and set5 are disjoint sets ` `if` `set4.isdisjoint(set5): ` ` ` `print` `(` `"Set4 and Set5 have nothing in common\n"` `) ` ` ` `# Removing all the values of set5 ` `set5.clear() ` ` ` `print` `(` `"After applying clear on sets Set5: "` `) ` `print` `(` `"Set5 = "` `, set5) ` |

Output:

('Set1 = ', set([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])) ('Set2 = ', set([3, 4, 5, 6, 7])) ('Union of Set1 & Set2: Set3 = ', set([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7])) ('Intersection of Set1 & Set2: Set4 = ', set([3, 4, 5])) Set3 is superset of Set4 Set4 is subset of Set3 ('Elements in Set3 and not in Set4: Set5 = ', set([1, 2, 6, 7])) Set4 and Set5 have nothing in common After applying clear on sets Set5: ('Set5 = ', set([]))

**Recent articles on Python Set.**

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