Python3 Intermediate Level Topics

After going through the basics of python, you would be interested to know more about further and bit more advance topics of the Python3 programming language.
This article covers them.
Please remember that Python completely works on indentation and it is advised to practice it a bit by running some programs. Use the tab key to provide indentation to your code.

This article is divided in following five sections:

  1. Classes
    Just like every other Object Oriented Programming language Python supports classes. Let’s look at some points on Python classes.

    • Classes are created by keyword class.
    • Attributes are the variables that belong to class.
    • Attributes are always public and can be accessed using dot (.) operator. Eg.: Myclass.Myattribute

    A sample E.g for classes:

    filter_none

    edit
    close

    play_arrow

    link
    brightness_4
    code

    # creates a class named MyClass
    class MyClass:  
            # assign the values to the MyClass attributes
            number = 0       
            name = "noname"
      
    def Main():
            # Creating an object of the MyClass. 
            # Here, 'me' is the object
            me = MyClass() 
      
            # Accessing the attributes of MyClass
            # using the dot(.) operator   
            me.number = 1337    
            me.name = "Harssh"
      
            # str is an build-in function that 
            # creates an string
            print(me.name + " " + str(me.number))
         
    # telling python that there is main in the program.
    if __name__=='__main__':  
            Main()

    chevron_right

    
    

    Output :

    Harssh 1337
    
  2. Methods
    Method is a bunch of code that is intended to perform a particular task in your Python’s code.

    • Function that belongs to a class is called an Method.
    • All methods require ‘self’ parameter. If you have coded in other OOP language you can think of ‘self’ as the ‘this’ keyword which is used for the the current object. It unhides the current instance variable.’self’ mostly work like ‘this’.
    • ‘def’ keyword is used to create a new method.
    filter_none

    edit
    close

    play_arrow

    link
    brightness_4
    code

    # A Python program to demonstrate working of class
    # methods
      
    class Vector2D:
            x = 0.0
            y = 0.0
      
            # Creating a method named Set
            def Set(self, x, y):     
                    self.x = x
                    self.y = y
      
    def Main():
            # vec is an object of class Vector2D
            vec = Vector2D()   
             
            # Passing values to the function Set
            # by using dot(.) operator.
            vec.Set(5, 6)       
            print("X: " + str(vec.x) + ", Y: " + str(vec.y))
      
    if __name__=='__main__':
            Main()

    chevron_right

    
    

    Output :

    X: 5, Y: 6
  3. Inheritance
    Inheritance is defined as a way in which a particular class inherits features from its base class.Base class is also knows as ‘Superclass’ and the class which inherits from the Superclass is knows as ‘Subclass’

    Inheritance
    As shown in the figure the Derived class can inherit features from its base class, also it can define its own features too.

    filter_none

    edit
    close

    play_arrow

    link
    brightness_4
    code

    # Syntax for inheritance
      
    class derived-classname(superclass-name)

    chevron_right

    
    

    filter_none

    edit
    close

    play_arrow

    link
    brightness_4
    code

    # A Python program to demonstrate working of inheritance
    class Pet:
            #__init__ is an constructor in Python
            def __init__(self, name, age):     
                    self.name = name
                    self.age = age
      
    # Class Cat inheriting from the class Pet
    class Cat(Pet):         
            def __init__(self, name, age):
                    # calling the super-class function __init__ 
                    # using the super() function
                    super().__init__(name, age) 
      
    def Main():
            thePet = Pet("Pet", 1)
            jess = Cat("Jess", 3)
              
            # isinstance() function to check whether a class is 
            # inherited from another class
            print("Is jess a cat? " +str(isinstance(jess, Cat)))
            print("Is jess a pet? " +str(isinstance(jess, Pet)))
            print("Is the pet a cat? "+str(isinstance(thePet, Cat)))
            print("Is thePet a Pet? " +str(isinstance(thePet, Pet)))
            print(jess.name)
      
    if __name__=='__main__':
            Main()

    chevron_right

    
    

    Output :

    Is jess a cat? True
    Is jess a pet? True
    Is the pet a cat? False
    Is thePet a Pet? True
    Jess
    
  4. Iterators
    Iterators are objects that can be iterated upon.

    • Python uses the __iter__() method to return an iterator object of the class.
    • The iterator object then uses the __next__() method to get the next item.
    • for loops stops when StopIteration Exception is raised.
    filter_none

    edit
    close

    play_arrow

    link
    brightness_4
    code

    # This program will reverse the string that is passed
    # to it from the main function
    class Reverse:
        def __init__(self, data):
            self.data = data
            self.index = len(data)        
      
        def __iter__(self):
            return self
          
        def __next__(self):
            if self.index == 0:
                raise StopIteration    
            self.index-= 1
            return self.data[self.index]
      
    def Main():
        rev = Reverse('Drapsicle')
        for char in rev:
            print(char)
      
    if __name__=='__main__':
        Main()

    chevron_right

    
    

    Output :

    e
    l
    c
    i
    s
    p
    a
    r
    D
    
  5. Generators
    • Another way of creating iterators.
    • Uses a function rather than a separate class
    • Generates the background code for the next() and iter() methods
    • Uses a special statement called yield which saves the state of the generator and set a resume point for when next() is called again.
    filter_none

    edit
    close

    play_arrow

    link
    brightness_4
    code

    # A Python program to demonstrate working of Generators
    def Reverse(data):
        # this is like counting from 100 to 1 by taking one(-1) 
        # step backward.
        for index in range(len(data)-1, -1, -1):
            yield data[index]
      
    def Main():
        rev = Reverse('Harssh')
        for char in rev:
            print(char)
        data ='Harssh'
        print(list(data[i] for i in range(len(data)-1, -1, -1)))
      
    if __name__=="__main__":
        Main()

    chevron_right

    
    

    Output :

    h
    s
    s
    r
    a
    H
    ['h', 's', 's', 'r', 'a', 'H']
    

This article is contributed by Harsh Wardhan Chaudhary (Intern) . If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org.

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.



My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up


Article Tags :

7


Please write to us at contribute@geeksforgeeks.org to report any issue with the above content.