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Python – Capitalize repeated characters in a string

  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 29 Dec, 2021

Given an input string with lowercase letters, the task is to write a python program to identify the repeated characters in the string and capitalize them.


Input: programming language

Output: pRoGRAMMiNG lANGuAGe

Explanation: r,m,n,a,g are repeated elements

Input: geeks for geeks

Output: GEEKS for GEEKS

Explanation: g,e,k,s are repeated elements


  • We have to keep the character of a string as a key and the frequency of each character of the string as a value in the dictionary.
  • Traverse the string and check the frequency of each character using a dictionary if the frequency of the character is greater than one then change the character to the uppercase using the upper() function.



# function for changing the
# repeated characters to uppercase
def RepeatedUpper(s):
    # declaring dictionary
    dic = {}
    # Traversing the string
    for i in s:
        # If the character is already
        # present in dictionary then increment
        # the frequency of the character
        if i in dic:
            dic[i] = dic[i]+1
   # If the character is not present in
   # the dictionary then inserting
   # the character in the dictionary
            dic[i] = 1
    ans = ''
    # traversing the string
    for i in s:
        # if the frequency of the character is
        # greater than one
        if dic[i] > 1:
            # change into uppercase
            i = i.upper()
        # appending each character to the ans
        ans = ans+i
    return ans
# Driver code
s = 'geeks for geeks'
# function call



Time Complexity: O(n)

Space Complexity: O(n)

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