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Nitrogen Dioxide Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 12 May, 2022
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Nitrogen is a naturally occurring element required for plant and animal growth and reproduction. It is a chemical element with the atomic number 7 and makes up around 78 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is a colorless, odorless, unreacted gas. Liquid nitrogen (obtained by distilling liquid air) is a refrigerant that boils at 77.4 Kelvin (195.8 °C). Manganese dioxide (MnO2) and nitrogen dioxide are examples of oxides with two oxygen atoms, each directly linked to an atom of a second element (NO2).

Nitrogen Dioxide 

Nitrogen dioxide is nitrogen and oxygen-based chemical. One of several nitric oxides, including nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and others. Any compound’s chemical formula can be either an empirical or molecular formula. The empirical formula specifies the number of atoms in each element that makes up the molecule. In contrast, the molecular formula describes the number of atoms in each element that makes up the molecule. Because it defines the amount of each element and the simplest integer ratio of nitrogen dioxide to nitrogen and oxygen, 1:2, the empirical and molecular formula for nitrogen dioxide is NO2. Nitric oxide (IV) or nitric oxide is another name for nitric oxide. It is a severe air contaminant that absorbs UV light and causes skin cancer.

Nitrogen dioxide Structure 

The covalent molecule nitrogen dioxide (NO2) comprises a core nitrogen atom, a single bond to an oxygen atom, and a double bond to another oxygen atom.



Physical properties of Nitrogen dioxide 

The chemical formula of nitrogen dioxideNO2, This nitrogen dioxide formula serves as both the empirical and the molecular formula.
The determination of the molecular weight from the molecular formula of nitrogen dioxide 

Molecular Weight of Nitrogen Dioxide = (Molecular weight of Nitrogen ∗ Number of Nitrogen atoms) + (Molecular weight of Oxygen ∗ Number of Oxygen atoms)

= (14 g/mol ∗ 1) + (16 g/mol ∗ 2)

= 14 + 32

= 46 g/mol.

The density of Nitrogen dioxideThe density of nitrogen dioxide is 1.880 g/dm3
Melting Point of Nitrogen dioxideThe Melting Point of Nitrogen dioxide is −9.3 °C.
Boiling Point of Nitrogen dioxide The boiling point of Nitrogen dioxide is 21.15 °C.

Chemical properties of Nitrogen dioxide 

  • Thermal Properties: Nitric oxide gas exists in equilibrium.

2 NO2 ⇌ N2O4

  • As an oxidizing agent: NO2 is a strong oxidizing agent due to its weak N-O bond.
  • Hydrolysis Reaction: Hydrolysis reaction produces nitrite and nitric acid.

2NO2(N2O4) + H2O → HNO2 + HNO3

  • Rate of reaction: This is a negligibly slow reaction at low nitrogen dioxide concentrations.
  • Formation of nitrites: The corresponding nitrites are formed from alkyl and metal iodides.

2CH3I + 2 NO2 → 2CH3NO2 + I2

TiI4 + 4NO2 → Ti(NO)4 + 2I2

Sources of Nitrogen dioxide

Combustion accounts for almost 98 percent of man-made NO emissions, with stationary sources accounting for the majority. Combustion-generated nitrogen oxides are mostly exhaled as nitric oxide, or NO, a comparatively harmless gas that is quickly transformed into the lethal nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. Nitrogen dioxide has a negative impact on human respiratory functioning, and prolonged exposure can lead to a rise in respiratory illnesses. Nitrogen dioxide also serves as a precursor to creating nitrate aerosols and nitrosamines, both of which have health implications. Nitrogen oxides are one of the air pollutants for which limits and frequent regulations have been created due to the volume produced and the potential for widespread negative impacts on public health and welfare.

Uses of Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide has a variety of applications.

  • It’s utilized as a step in the nitric acid synthesis process.
  • It’s a component in the production of oxidized cellulose compounds.
  • It functions as a catalyst.
  • It’s utilized as a step in the process of making sulphuric acid.
  • It’s utilized in rocket fuels as an oxidizer.
  • It’s utilized as an oxidant and for whitening flour.
  • It’s also utilized in the production of explosives.

Sample problems 

Question 1: What is Nitrogen Dioxide Used for?


Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a catalyst that is used in a variety of oxidation reactions. During distillation, as an inhibitor to prevent the polymerization of acrylates; As a nitrator for organic compounds, as an oxidizer, as a rocket fuel, and a flour bleaching agent.

Question 2: What Causes Higher Nitrogen Dioxide Levels?


Automobiles, power plants, construction gear, lawn and garden equipment, and other commercial and off-road sources of nitrogen dioxide are all sources. Both of these sources rely on fossil fuels. People who live or work near congested highways are at risk of being exposed to excessive pollution.

Question 3: How is Nitrogen Dioxide Formed?


Nitrogen dioxide is a nitrogen-oxygen molecule that is one of several nitrogen oxides. The high-temperature combustion process found in gas appliances such as gas stoves and electrical equipment such as heaters produces it. The majority of nitrogen dioxide is produced in the industrial sector as an intermediate product in the manufacturing of nitric acid for fertilizers.

Question 4: Does Nitrogen Dioxide Cause Global Warming?


The two most deadly and hazardous nitrogen oxides are nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide. Laughing gas, or nitrous oxide, is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.

Question 5: What does Nitrogen Dioxide do?


Breathing significant levels of nitrogen dioxide causes an increased risk of respiratory disease. Nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs’ inner membranes, weakening the immune system’s ability to fight infections. Wheezing, coughing, colds, pneumonia, and bronchitis are all possible side effects.

Question 6: Is Nitrogen Dioxide Heavier than Air?


Nitric oxide is rapidly oxidized in the air to create nitrogen dioxide at high concentrations, Exhibition. When exposed to poorly ventilated, tight, or lowland environments, nitrogen dioxide is heavier than air and can cause choking. Both nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are gases that exist at room temperature.

Question 7: How does nitrogen dioxide affect air quality?


In the open air, NO2 and other nitrogen oxides create particle pollution and chemical reactions that produce ozone. It’s one of six prevalent air pollutants with national air quality guidelines that aim to keep outside air to a minimum.

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