National Tuberculosis Elimination Program
The Indian government wanted to get rid of tuberculosis through a program which is known as The National Tuberculosis Elimination Program (NTEP). The national tuberculosis program was launched in 1962. This tuberculosis program in India has led the country’s efforts to fight tuberculosis from a technical and management point of view. According to the National Strategic Plan 2017–25, the program aims to make India “TB-free.”
Background Information of the Tuberculosis:
- TB is one of the oldest diseases we know about. Both the Vedas and the Ayurvedic Samhitas talk about it. According to the W H O report, around 2.7 million people have TB, and 400,000 people die due to TB.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the only cause of Tuberculosis; it spreads from person to person. If left untreated, people with infectious pulmonary TB will spread the disease to an average of 10 to 15 other people each year.
- Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine protects against TB by screening people at high risk, finding and treating cases quickly, and screening people at high risk. People who live with, work with or are friends with someone who has active TB are at high risk.
Services for Therapy:
- The program offers a standardized treatment protocol that includes numerous anti-tuberculosis medications.
- Therapy for tuberculosis consists of a two-month intense phase for narcotic TB and six months for narcotic TB, followed by a four-month follow-up time for drug-sensitive TB and one-and-a-half years for MDR TB.
- Differential treatment regimens are available through the program depending on the antibiotic to the condition.
- The medications are given in Fixed-Dose Combinations based on daily weight bands, with HRZE again for the acute stage of 2 months plus HRE for the maintenance period of four months.
Existing Government Schemes for the Advantage of Tuberculosis Patients under the NTEP:
- Free Tuberculosis Diagnosis
- Therapy for all kinds of tuberculosis is free and of high quality.
- Pre-treatment examination for MDR patients is free, as is travel assistance for the patients and one companion.
- MDR TB patients receive free monthly regular diagnostic tests.
- All qualifying presumptive TB cases will receive a free chest X-ray.
- Akshay Poshan Yojana under a DBT of Rs 500 every month for the length of anti-TB medication for all TB patients.
- Informants receive a reward of Rs 500 for each proven case of tuberculosis.
Under the program, diagnostic services are provided by a network of different types of labs that work in a three-tiered way. At the service or facility level, the first level is made up of microscopy and quick molecular tests. They help the first tier with advanced DST facilities and supervision.
Designated Microscopy Centres:
The Designated Microscopy Centres employ Smear’s stain imaging using the Ziehl–Neelsen method. With over 20,000 performance facilities across India, it is the most commonly accessible test. To make the diagnosis, two sputum samples are obtained over a couple of days from infected chest individuals (those who have had a cough for two weeks or more).
Rapid Molecular Testing Laboratories:
The GeneXpert Platform’s Cartridge Driven Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (CBNAAT) & TruNat are quick genetic diagnostics for Diagnosing and Antibiotic resistance identification. This testing is preferred for large populations, children, narcotic case contacts, and PLHAs (Patients Living With HIV AIDS).
Laboratories for Cultures and Screening Tests:
C&DST (Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing) Laboratories are situated at a few selected locations throughout the state, mostly within the IRL, and started offering tests like the Line Probe Assay and Solid and Liquid Culture. These labs provide process ads and refuse predisposing testing facilities for an amount of Anti-TB drugs.
The Indian government is focusing on four main areas: prevention, early detection, treatment, and building “pillars for universal coverage.” A network of different types of labs that work in a three-tiered way provides diagnostic services. According to the survey in India, most patients are found in Delhi with tuberculosis and pulmonary TB — at 747 per 100,000 and 534 per 100,000. Not only India but some other countries also suffer from Tuberculosis. This article covered all the important information about the National Tuberculosis Elimination Program.