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MOET Technology (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology)

Last Updated : 20 Mar, 2024
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Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) is a method of reproductive technology widely used in animal breeding, particularly in livestock production. MOET technique is used for accelerating genetic progress and increasing the reproductive efficiency of a genetically superior individual animal.

MOET is a three-step process that involves stimulating ovulation, embryo collection, and embryo transfer. This technique has its advantages resulting in multiple offspring in a stipulated time. However, it comes with specific disadvantages as well.

What is MOET?

MOET is the technique where cattle are induced to produce multiple eggs. This is a superovulation procedure where the female is injected with hormones to produce 6-8 eggs instead of the single egg that they generally produce. This superovulated female is artificially inseminated to produce multiple embryos. These fertilized embryos are collected using non-surgical methods and are transferred to surrogate mothers.

Also Read: Embryo Development – Development Process of Fetus


Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET)

Step Wise Procedure of MOET

The procedure of MOET is as discussed below:

Step 1: Programming

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prostaglandins are injected into the muscles of donor female animals. During this phase, care will be taken in terms of the donor female’s nutrition, and hygiene. The health condition will be monitored on a routine basis.

Step 2: Detecting Heat

Heats should be accurately detected for reproductive success. Failure in heat detection or any errors can lead to low reproductive efficiency and poor results.

Step 3: Collecting Embryos

Embryos will be collected by a trained veterinary doctor. Firstly, they inject the epidural into females for their bowels to relax. Following this, the veterinary doctor locates the catheter into one horn of the uterus by inserting the hand into the rectum. The embryos are flushed and collected with a fine filter. After 3 days, this female will be injected with prostaglandins for proper cycling.

Step 4: Embryology

The collected embryos are observed under a microscope, graded, counted and washed. Grade 1 embryos are usually the ones in excellent condition while the grade 4 are those that are dead and degenerating. The grading will be done by morphological observation, where the various developmental stages of embryos are observed under the microscope. Embryo shape, colour, size, compactness of cells, and the exact developmental stage of embryos are identified.

Step 5: Embryo Transfer

The grade 1 embryos are transferred into the surrogate mothers with the help of a transfer gun. Surrogate mothers are maintained with hygiene and also undergo routine checkups before and after embryo transfer. Hygienic conditions are to be ensured well for effective results.

Also Read: What is Embryology?

Goal of MOET

MOET is used in breeding and increasing the herd size of economically useful animals. The main agenda of the technique is that a female can produce more offspring than it is capable of producing through natural reproduction. Additionally, the genetic abilities of the donor female are maximised through the offspring.

Also Read: Plant Breeding

A Brief History of MOET Technology

The first successful mammalian embryo transfer was carried out in 1890 by Walter Heape. However, in the early days, embryo transfer involved surgical procedures. It was in the mid-1970s that the non-surgical recovery of embryos was developed.

MOET Technique is used for Which Animal?

MOET can be used to increase the herd size of cattle including cows, buffalos, goats, sheep, and pigs. Horses cannot be reproduced through MOET techniques as they are not able to be superovulated.

Also Read: How do organism Reproduce?

Advantages of MOET Technology

MOET is used for producing more viable embryos and fertilising several oocytes in a short time. Here are the benefits of MOET technology:

  • MOET technology involves non-surgical methods and can be easily performed on farms.
  • The viable, collected embryos can be safely stored in the laboratory and used in future.
  • The method is used for increasing the crowd number of farm animals. It impacts the reproductive ability.
  • MOET technology is usually used for producing desired embryos like those producing more milk or more meat.

Disadvantages of MOET Technology

Some disadvantages of MOET technology are as follows:

  • It is a costly method because it needs specialized equipment, facilities, and skilled personnel.
  • It is very much time and labour intensive because the process requires significant time and labor for hormone treatments, embryo collection, and transfer procedures.
  • Hormone treatments used in the process can lead to health complications in donor animals, and there’s a risk of injury or infection during embryo collection and transfer.
  • Intensive use of MOET may reduce genetic diversity over time, potentially increasing the risk of genetic disorders and limiting sustainability.

Drugs for MOET Technology

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology uses follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone and prostaglandin (Estroplan or Estrumate injection) mainly. Further, it also needs other drugs like pregnecol (PMSG), and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (Receptal). These drugs help in synchronising the cycle of animal.

Conclusion – MOET Technology (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology)

MOET Technology is a technique for increasing the reproductive rate of farm animals with desired traits. A female is stimulated to produce multiple embryos and further, these embryos are collected by uterine flushing. It is a simple technique that can be performed on a farm without the need for any surgery.

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FAQs on MOET Technology

What are the uses of MOET Technology?

MOET technology is used to increase farm animals number. Farm animals like cows can reproduce a single calf in a year. However, using MOET, 6-8 calves can be produced. Further, the embryos collected can also be stored for usage in future.

What is the Difference Between IVF and MOET?

The fusion of male and female gametes is fused manually inside the lab conditions in IVF. However, MOET is a technique where the female is stimulated to produce more eggs and the formed embryos are collected and grown in the surrogate mother’s uterus.

Which Hormone is Used for MOET?

MOET uses hormones like gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), prostaglandins and progesterone. Hormone injection is to optimise the cycle in breeding animals.

Briefly Describe the Steps Involved in MOET Technology.

Different steps involved in MOET technology include, programming, heat detection, embryo collection, and transfer to surrogate mothers. Each step of MOET is significant for effective reproductive results.

What is Superovulation and Embryo Transfer Technology?

Superovulation and Embryo Transfer Technology involve inducing multiple egg production in a female animal, followed by harvesting and transferring embryos to another animal.

What is the MOET Technique?

The MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer) technique aims to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior females by inducing multiple ovulations and transferring resulting embryos to recipient females.

What is the Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Procedure?

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET) is a reproductive technique where multiple eggs are collected, fertilized, and transferred into recipient animals to increase breeding efficiency.

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer?

Advantages of MOET include rapid genetic improvement, while disadvantages may include higher costs and potential health risks associated with hormonal treatments.

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